Abdominal Encyclopedia: Core Anatomy And Effective Training
Every day, millions of gym goers do crunches in hopes of getting a tighter, smaller waist. The problem is that the basic crunch is ... basic. Spot reduction isn't possible; having visible abs is a byproduct of nutrition, exercise, and overall caloric expenditure.
According to science, crunches have almost zero impact on body composition. In a recent study, 14 subjects were instructed to do five abdominal exercise routines per week for six consecutive weeks. As expected, no statistically significant changes in body composition were noted other than the subjects' ability to do more crunches.
Despite this fact, ab freaks still bang out crunch after crunch, day after day, wasting countless hours on a less-than-stellar abdominal exercise.
Abdominal exercises can still be beneficial to your program. You just want to make sure you choose the most effective moves. It's also important that you know the facts regarding the anatomy and function of your abs. Let's cut through the clutter and learn some valuable insight on waist size, ab anatomy, and the best core exercises.
Before you even think about training and dieting for a ripped midsection, you need to understand the abdominal musculature and the function of each area. This knowledge is powerful because it strengthens the mind-muscle connection. It's been proven that a strong mind-muscle connection recruits more muscle activity.
Rectus Abdominis: Commonly referred to as the six-pack, the rectus abdominis is sheet of muscle which runs laterally from pelvis to sternum. It originates at the pubis and pubic symphosis and inserts into the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs. The rectus abdominis has thin bands of connective tissue that gives it that washboard appearance. Its basic function is to flex the trunk, increase abdominal pressure, and stabilize the pelvis.
External Obliques: These muscles run diagonally down and toward the midline of the body. They originate on the lower eight ribs and insert along your pelvis, at the bottom of your pubic area, and into the linea alba, or the line of connective tissue down the middle of the rectus abdominus. These muscles rotate and laterally flex the trunk. They also compress the abdomen.
Internal Obliques: As the name states, these muscles lie below the external obliques. They run diagonally upward and toward the midline of the body. They originate along the hip bone and ligaments and insert into the lower three or four ribs. The internal obliques rotate and laterally flex the trunk and compress the abdomen.
Transverse Abdominis: Also referred to as the transversus, this is the deepest layer of muscle. It lies below the internal obliques and wraps around the abdominal area. This is your factory-installed weightlifting belt, basically. The transverse abdominus originates on the lower six ribs and along the hip bone and ligaments and then inserts into the linea alba and pubic crest. It compresses the abdomen.
Now that you understand how your abdominal muscles work, it's time to go over how to best strengthen them. To identify the most effective movements, a study was conducted by Peter Francis, Ph.D., and Jennifer Davis, M.A., at the San Diego State University Biomechanics Lab. They used electromyography to measure the muscle fiber activity during abdominal exercises.
One of the best ways to torch the abs is to perform a series of core moves in one continuous circuit. Circuits are efficient and effective, allowing you to get the most out of your efforts. Notice that the sample programs featured here include the very effective movement from the above charts.
For optimal results, perform these core circuits at the end of your heavy lifting or conditioning sessions. You want your core strong and ready to back you up when you're in the thick of an intense workout. Now that you've got the tools of the trade, it's time to put your six-pack plan into action!
Circuit: 2-4 rounds
Circuit: 2-4 rounds
- Staiano AE, et al. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults. J Strength Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Nov;36(11):1450-4.
- Vispute SS, et al. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. Cond Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):2559-64.
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Good information regarding how much more the percentage of activity is versus standard crunches. That makes it much easier to figure out which exercises to incorporate.
Thanks for the article!
People need to remember that with ab work no abdominal muscles attach to the femurs JUST THE PELVIS. Be conscious of your pelvic stability otherwise with some of these you may just be using your hip flexors which tend to be overly tight in most people.
Good article. At first I thought this was going to be more about which exercises would work out certain parts of the abs, which it kind of did, but I was thinking more lower/upper rectus abdominal, etc. Anyway, I am wishing that the charts had more information on them.
Great article! I certainly focus too much on straight crunches and the rectus abdominus, need to hit them obliques better and transverse! Not necessarily that they need development but why spend so much effort on just one section? Great article!
Abs are made in the kitchen dont forget that. Eat healthy and right. Promise you'll see results. Look up Steve Cooks youtube channel and check out his videos on eating healthy and how many calories one should intake to get shredded & drop the extra body fat. Smart man and knows what he is talking about.
Make sure with the "hanging knee raise" exercise you emphasize the motion after your knees are parallel and flex your knees up into your chest. If you only raise your knees up to parallel it is ONLY a hip flexor exercise.
I use the ab ball and adjust my angle on the ball to target different sections...works out great. A great one for your obliques: lay on your side, bend your arm and rest it on your head, crunch your elbow and knee together and straighten your leg. Reverse crunches: hands behind the head, knees together and off the ground, crunch elbows and knees together, then straighten out your legs. Put your hands under your ***, with both legs in the air and push your toes to the sky. Lay on your back with knees bent, like doing a sit-up, slide your palms along the floor to your heels and hold it, to work your top two rectus abdominus. I cycle them switching for one to the next, with no rest. Do 4 sets of 15-20 reps!!! Happy shredding :)
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