Gluconeogenesis & A Mixture Of Glucose Disposal Agents: An Approach Like No Other.

Using this supplement and diet mixture, your gains could be steroid-like. It is also only for those with the greatest possible discipline! Learn more about this revolutionary approach! Fully explained with exact dosages and plans.

Ever since I have begun the off-season I have been brainstorming about how to go about eating. I know that I want to use a cyclic diet. This means that I want to cycle the macronutrients carbohydrates, protein, and fat. I have designed a diet regimen that I described in my bulking article, but I wanted to experiment with something that not many people even venture into theorizing about. It is called gluconeogenesis. This term refers to making glucose from a foreign substance, or making a new form of glucose.

The source of macronutrient that I choose to achieve this is the mighty protein. I have been researching the subject for a while now. In addition to living in this metabolic state of gluconeogenesis, I have formulated a concoction of insulin mimetic that will have similar results of the powerful hormone insulin. So lets see what happens when you are in a metabolic state of gluconeogenesis and you add a powerful mixture of insulin mimetics into the theory.

How It All Began - A Conversation Between Gurus

First of all lets look at why people are afraid of the word insulin. If you are thinking that insulin is a bad guy hormone then you can thank guys like Barry Sears and Dr. Atkins. These men have created great breakthroughs for the dieting elite, but in doing so they have stated that insulin will make you fat. And to some extent this is really the flat out truth, but only if you are eating a diet comprised of foods which cause extremely high insulin secretions all of the time. Said sadly, this is much like the average American daily diet. But aside from the average American, high insulin secretions can pack on the pounds for bodybuilders as well. Insulin has the ability to do this to even the most elite of bodybuilders. Insulin can make you fat faster than Ronnie Coleman can devour a whole pizza after winning the Mr. Olympia. Okay, so insulin can be bad. The thing I want you to realize is that insulin is also considered by many to be the most superior anabolic hormone existing today (1).

Of course we all know that growth hormone (GH) and anabolic steroids can pack on some serious muscle. But the mass monsters competing as IFBB professionals will tell you that they have never really blown up without utilizing insulin. On the down side they will also tell you that nothing made them accumulate fat as easily as insulin. Why is this? This happens because insulin has the ability to drive protein and carbohydrates into muscle tissue. This is great but insulin also shoves unused carbohydrates and fat into adipose tissue, which is a form of stored energy. Insulin will only do this IF you allow it to (1).

I read an article that was written by Mr. Oliver W. Starr. He spoke about an interesting conversation that he, Mike Zumpano, and Dan Duchaine had one evening. Boy would I have loved to have been there. Anyway, they were sitting around having one of there philosophical discussions. He states that it was on "the various idiosyncrasies of various anabolic pharmaceuticals". Sounds interesting, huh? For one reason or another their intriguing discussion turned to the subject of insulin use. Mr. Starr claimed to become horrified at the mere idea of having fat on his body. He claimed to be small but lean. Mr. Starr immediately said that he would never use insulin because he was afraid of getting fat (1).

Mike Zumpano, the most philosophical of the three suggested an ideal way to use insulin. He wanted to set up a IV drip of amino acids and let it run through the veins for a while. After a while of circulating he suggested taking an injection of insulin. Mr. Zumpano said that this would let you get huge. Dan Duchaine suggested giving the injection into a freckle assuring it would not show up visibly in case the bodybuilder were to die! This must have been a wild conversation but it lead to other theories which is why I am writing this article today (1).

Mr. Starr agreed that such an idea would possibly be the ideal way to use insulin, but he was concerned about the cost benefit analysis. There had to be another way. Mr. Starr asked, "Mike, I said, why does insulin make these guys so fat?" Mr. Zumpano responded that it was not insulin. It was more related to the fear that insulin users have. This of course made zero sense, so Mr. Starr pressed him even more. Mr. Zumpano explained how most of the fat gained was caused by an excess of carbohydrate consumption in conjunction with insulin use (1).

To use insulin correctly in a safe manner, the user must consume at least 10 grams of carbohydrates for every IU of insulin injected. Therefore a bodybuilder that were to use 8 IU's of insulin TWICE a day needs to consume at least 160 grams of additional carbohydrates a day. This will keep him from experiencing a hypoglycemic coma. So you are thinking big deal, 160 grams of carbohydrates or 640 more calories per day will be a joke to someone already consuming 5000 plus kilocalories each day. Well, in most cases it may not, but that is not what Mr. Zumpano thought was happening really happening (1).

Most bodybuilders are scared of experiencing insulin shock, who can blame them? They become really reactive to any small change of their mental state immediately following an injection. This often times leads them to intake more carbohydrates than the recommended 10 grams per IU. Though the additional carbohydrate intake does not seem too excessive, Mr. Starr was now sure that they were the primary reasoning behind the size and fat gain that insulin users experienced. Mike Zumpano, made several things occur to Mr. Starr and Duchaine (1).

Why Additional Carbohydrates?

First of all, what exactly was the rationale concerning this general dosage of additional carbohydrates? Secondly, did consuming carbohydrates have any basis in biochemistry? And thirdly, was there another way? A way that would allow enable bodybuilders to use insulin giving them a safe and anabolic effect while avoiding the excessive fat gains which have plagued insulin users in the past? Mr. Starr's article intrigued me into making my own version of his theory utilizing glucose disposal agents not insulin (1).

I thought that it was interesting to know that human plasma contains roughly 5 grams of carbohydrates at any given time. That is not much at all. Diabetics that have overdosed on insulin can get their blood glucose levels to normal range by eating five grams of the sugar dextrose. It makes you wonder why the 10-gram for each IU used rule came about in the first place (1)?

Here Is My New Plan!

Through their conversation Mr. Starr concocted a theory that he called "A New and Dangerous Method for "No Fat Gain" Insulin Use." It may not be terribly dangerous given you did it exactly like he stated too, but it takes discipline. My way is considerably less dangerous.

"The result is a substantial gain in muscle mass with minimal fat gain."

I have taken his theory and concocted my own insulin mimetic mixture in an attempt to achieve similar gains or results. Can it work? Is it worth it? I have already started it on August 4th, 2002. I am going to give it a whirl and then you can be the judge, or if you dare to venture into my world you can try it too (1).

Here is the difference; instead of taking insulin you will use a formulated insulin mimetic mixture that I have designed. The plot thickens when we will use a low carbohydrate regimen along with the insulin mimetic. Low meaning less then 50 grams per day. This sounds like a contest diet right? Is it insanity? Allow me to explain and then once again you will be able to decide for yourself (1).


I became convinced through reading Mr. Starr's article that insulin was depositing carbohydrates into fat storage. Well, I was convinced way before that but it reinforced my belief. I too believed that there had to be some other way to manage a moderate blood glucose level. There had to be a way to do this in a stable manner. Mr. Starr recommended the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis in his article. When liver (hepatic) and muscle glycogen storage becomes depleted right before the body slips into ketosis the body converts amino acids into glucose. Our body does this to maintain steady blood glucose levels. This is the process known as gluconeogenesis. It is the making of glucose from a new source, in our case protein (1).

When we eat a really low carbohydrate diet the stage is set for depleting liver and muscular glycogen. This up-regulates enzymes needed for an efficient conversion of amino acids into glucose. As stated before, the word gluconeogenesis means "the birth of new glucose." Protein is really important for us gluconeogenesis dieters. If you do not eat many carbohydrates, the body must convert amino acids, which are the "building blocks" of protein into glucose. This happens everyday whenever we eat protein, however, in a low carbohydrate environment combined with consuming a large amount of protein much more is created (1).

Thus protein consumption is really important because all of this excess protein being consumed keeps you upright and off of the floor when using the insulin suggested in Mr. Starr's theory. I expect that the same goes for my theoretical approach. We are not talking about ordinary protein consumption where you eat two times your bodyweight here. I am talking about consuming a massive amount of protein. Mr. Starr even claimed that any company selling whey protein should thank him for writing his article. There is almost no way that someone would be able to consume the amount of protein necessary to do this correctly by using from normal food sources. For example, you would need to consume about 24 chicken breast per day to get the recommended amount of protein he found necessary to support gluconeogenesis needed to use insulin on a low carb diet safely. I once again am agreeing with him for my theory's purposes (1).

Mr. Starr has worked with several top athletes in refining his program. He discovered that consuming 600 grams of protein was the best strategy. He suggests using a combination of whey and casein. In addition to this heavy protein supplement use one solid meal containing 50 - 100 grams of protein and some fiber from leafy greens should be consumed daily. The remainder of your daily kilocalories should come from fats having little or no carbohydrates. Mr. Starr suggested avoiding nuts because nuts have carbohydrates, I will disagree and say otherwise. Soy nuts and walnuts contain only fibrous carbohydrates and can be used with out ruining the metabolic state of gluconeogenesis. However I am not saying to eat them freely (1).

Consuming lots of water is recommended while on this program. Drinking between 1 1/2 - 2 gallons daily in addition to the protein drinks is ideal. This may require you to keep a checklist each day. Another thing of note is Mr. Starr commenting that he heard from athletes that have followed this regimen in addition to the amount of muscle gained was that they began to hate the protein drink utilized. It did not seem to matter how good it was when they started the program. He suggests you find the blandest protein possible. He says that it will taste terrible in the beginning but after weeks of chugging it down, it will actually taste less terrible. Even less terrible than the drink you thought you liked. Mr. Starr also stated reports of strength. His suspicion was that there is some sort of up-regulation or increased glycogen storage ability associated with the program (1).

You Need Willpower!

There are some downsides to this program. Most probably the worst being the discipline required to correctly follow this program. You must consume this massive amount of protein day. Remember in this protocol, theoretically, the high protein intake is the keeping you upright and off of the floor. If you use the insulin mimetics and follow a low carbohydrate diet without maintaining an adequate protein intake, you may end up passing out and possibly get to spend a night in the hospital. You may just break down (you wimp) and munch on some carbohydrates in attempt to maintain steady blood sugar. If this happens you need to halt the insulin use and spend about three days in carb depletion before beginning the program once more (1).

This program obviously is not for everyone. It is going to be difficult and it is potentially dangerous. You will need to be a true bodybuilding Jedi Knight and use every ounce of Jedi discipline you have to make it. If you have will power, I am betting that the results will be all you have hoped for, possibly more. I do not really know but I am going to try it. In theory it should work great! Below is an outline of how to begin the program (1).

On days one - three you will be going through carb depletion. You should cut your carbohydrate intake down to 100 grams or less on the first day. I am being lenient here so do not complain. On day two lower the intake to less than 75 grams. Finally go to the suggested 50 grams of carbohydrates on day the third day of depletion. Over these three day you should be increasing your protein intake to about 350-500 grams each day. Try to use the suggested foods that you will be using for the entire program. It is now that you will realize just how much food and drink is 600 grams of protein. Ohh, do not worry about the old saying of " the body can only properly digest 40 grams of protein each serving". We are in a different metabolic pathway where protein is serving two purposes so eat your protein (1). On days 4 - 30 your protein consumption needs to be at least 600 grams each day. Carbohydrates need to be 50 grams or less. Good fats should be utilized to balance your caloric requirements on a daily basis. You should have a good idea of your maintenance kilocalorie requirements before embarking on this journey. This means that you should approximately know how many kilocalories that you need to eat to maintain your current body weight. Keeping a food log for several months will allow you to do this. Protein powders containing a mixed composition of whey and casein should be used. Some whole foods can be used if you wish to, just remember that 600 grams coming from chicken breasts is equal to about 24 breasts each day! This is not a problem if you are a greedy pig like I am (1).

I recommend 2 intakes of the insulin mimetic mixture per day. It all depends on when you train. The first one should be taken in during your workout. About 30 minutes before finishing your training session take the first dose. The second dose will vary by individuals. It should be taken several hours (2-3) before you train if you train in the noon hours. It can also be taken several hours (2-3) after your training session for those training in the AM hours (1).

Mr. Starr suggested starting off with a very small amount of insulin, about 4 IU's and increasing it gradually. He also stated "By the end of my program I was using 12 IU's 3 times a day, but by this point I'm convinced that I was becoming somewhat insulin resistant". We do not have to worry about becoming insulin resistant so much because we are not using insulin. We are using a powerful mixture of insulin mimetics. I think that my version will be really effective and much less harmful, especially at the dosages that we will be using. Although considered high, they have been used on humans before with no side effects (1).

Mr. Starr recommends that the user discontinue the insulin / protein regimen after 26 days making the entire cycle last for an even 30 days. He also sates that "If you have results even remotely approximating mine, you should have added 10 or more pounds of serious muscle"! Well we will also say that 30 days is enough for the body in my version. It may be able to get used of this mixture but I do not really think so. What I do suggest is a great carb up using real carbohydrates after the 30-day cycle is complete. I also suggest halting the use of the insulin mimetic mixture to allow the body's insulin secretion to be the "big ace" for the off cycle period. I think that it is good for the pancreas to release insulin every so often as long as we use it to our advantage. A good 1-2 day carb up should follow this cycle (1).

I recommend that you or even a good friend, particularly the first couple of times you experiment with the mimetic mixture, monitor your status for signs of hypoglycemia. If you are feeling sleepy or and doped up after taking the mixture, that is fine, but be cautious when self-monitoring. If you lose the ability to stay awake by all means eat some carbohydrates or take a glucose tablet. This will be a lesson for our records and allow you to embark again knowing that the mix was too strong. You may need a lesser dose (1).

If you feel hungry and alert after ingesting the mixture, two things could be happening. You may not have taken enough of the mix or you may be becoming resistant to the mixture. I am not too sure if this is possible but it may be possible later on in the cycle. More than likely it is not going to happen. If this is the case you should get off of the mix. Be cautious this insulin mimetic mixture is powerful. The real version is widely recognized right in there with the riskiest of drug aided enhancement mechanisms. If you do not have the discipline to follow this program t the "T" then you should stick to saner methods concerning muscle growth. For those elite Jedi's out there lets learn about the mixture that I comprised (1).

Here are the supplements that are used.


The first ingredient is a well-known supplement that has several properties. We will focus on the glucose disposal properties mostly because that is why we are taking it. This substance is called alpha lipoic acid (ALA). In Germany ALA is medically approved. The approval of 300-600mg/day of ALA was primarily used in treating type II diabetes as well as other diabetic complications. ALA has the ability to lower and normalize blood sugar levels. ALA helps diabetics by reducing the amount of insulin needed in their daily insulin dosage. Since it is good enough for German medical technology I feel that it is good enough for me (2).

ALA has been shown to enhance glucose transport. Clinical setting studies showed an increase in insulin sensitivity after a mere10 day parenteral administration of ALA. The effects of orals were tested as well. A 4-week oral administration with ALA was evaluated. A placebo-controlled, study to determine whether oral treatment improves insulin sensitivity as well was conducted. Seventy-four patients all having type-2 diabetes were randomized into a placebo (n = 19); or an active treatment in varying doses. The treatment dosages were either 600 mg once a day (n = 19), 1200 mg twice daily (n = 18), or 1800mg three times a day (n = 18). In the study, analysis was taken according to the subjects showing improvements in insulin sensitivity following treatment. All groups were comparable. Each group had a similar condition of hyperglycemia and equal insulin sensitivity levels at baseline. The placebo group had significantly less subjects reveal positive results. When compared to the placebo group the ALA supplemented groups had an increase of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal after treatment. This placebo-controlled study confirms observations of a rise of insulin sensitivity in type-2 diabetics after intravenous administration of ALA. The results suggest oral administration of ALA can improve insulin sensitivity, particularly in type-2 diabetics as well. This is just a reassuring piece of research that convinced me to use ALA in my formula (3).

The dosage that I am recommending for ALA is 500mg per day for the first week, 700mg for the second and third week, and finally 1000mg for the fourth and final week. This keeps us in range of an approved medical dosage and research study. I feel safe using these dosages.

Recommended ALA Products

Chromium Picolinate

Moving on to the second glucose disposal agent in the mixture I would like to mention my favorite, which is chromium picolinate (2,3).

Chromium is considered to be an essential mineral. It participates in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolic fate. The trivalent or edible form of Chromium is necessary, in lab animals, for maintaining a normal glucose metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for the hormone insulin. Populations such as type-II diabetics and the elderly have been shown to respond well to the supplementation of chromium. In short, chromium is a critical factor for normal insulin activity. It has been highly recommended that the supplemented use the chromium picolinate form of chromium (4). Chromium picolinate is recommended at a relatively high dosage. We will be using up to 1000mcg each day. The dosage that I am recommending for chromium picolinate is 700mcg per day for the first week, 900 mcg for the second and third week, and finally 1000mcg for the fourth and final week (2).

Recommended Chromium Picolinate Products

Vanadyl Sulfate

Vanadyl sulfate (VS) in doses of up to 150mg each day may also be beneficial in helping normalize blood sugar. VS is a version of the element vanadium, which exists in approximately six different states. VS promotes steps that initiate the events seen normally when insulin binds to a receptor. VS dose this without insulin being present. VS can decrease blood glucose while increasing glycogen storage. Some evidence states that vanadium can stimulate an insulin release. By adding VS, some B vitamins, and proteins such as whey isolate you can achieve a response that is similar to insulin without messing with the injectable version of insulin. This will allow you to significantly increase the glucose uptake that will occur during gluconeogenesis. Done properly a significant increase in weight and a full feeling in the muscle bellies may occur (2,4).

Recommended Vanadyl Sulfate Products


The fourth part of the mixture is L-glutamine. Glutamine causes a notable increase in muscle glycogen storage through a mysterious and unknown mechanism. So supplementing with glutamine along can increase both glutamine and glycogen in muscle tissue. I recommend taking at the least, 5-10 grams of L-glutamine to allow for recompensation of glycogen. One study looked at the effects of an intravenous (IV) drip of glutamine. The drip raised blood Glutamine levels to about 70% above the normal range. This increase in blood glutamine levels significantly increased muscle glycogen deposition in humans. Notice that I did not say lab animals? (5).

The results of a research, which Paul Cribb from AST Sports Science spoke about were awesome. This study reported that 8-grams of L-glutamine taken directly after exercising promoted an equivalent glycogen storage effect as 61-grams of glucose would have. This proves that L-glutamine is very effective in increasing muscle energy stores. This news has great implications for athletes that want to build muscle mass, especially while on a calorie-restricted diet (6).

Glucose is the fuel, which powers intense exercise. Muscle glycogen is an athlete's fuel tank for glucose. Glutamine appears to enhance the refueling of glycogen while increasing the amount of fuel stored! Enhancing glycogen build-up in muscles not only means harder more intense workouts it means speedy recovery as well. Not to mention that it is a potent anabolic signal in muscle cells because the more glycogen storage ability in muscle cells the more cellular swelling and protein synthesis can occur. Even when on a calorie-restricted diet regimen, bodybuilders should gain muscle mass using glutamine directly following intense training sessions. The addition of L-glutamine to post-workout supplementation enhances glycogen storage and provides potent anabolic effects from training (6).

Recommended Glutamine Products


The B vitamins are the final component in the mixture. The B vitamins all have significance but in our case we are looking particularly at B-6. It is water-soluble and was originally isolated in the 1930's. There are six different forms of vitamin B-6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the active coenzyme form. It has the most importance concerning human metabolism (7).

Vitamin B-6 is essential in the diet. We cannot synthesize it. PLP plays an important role assisting in the function and operation of approximately 100 enzymes. These enzymes catalyze essential reactions in the body. PLP is a coenzyme for the reactions used in making glucose from amino acids. This process is known as gluconeogenesis, which is the state that you will be in on this program (7).

I felt that it was important to add the B-vitamins into the mix. I did not want to get too crazy with breaking it down. I will be using a recommended dosage of the B-vitamins over the gluconeogenesis period. I will supplement with Ultimate Nutrition's Super Vitamin B - Complex. I will take one tablet after my post workout meal.

Overview Of Dosages

Week #1

I am going to supplement with 500mg of ALA per day for the first week. 250mg will be taken on the first dose and another 250mg for the second.

I am going to supplement with 700mcg of chromium picolinate per day for the first week. 350mcg will be taken on the first dose and another 350mcg for the second.

Vanadyl sulfate will be supplemented in doses 100mg each day during the first week. 50mg will be taken on the first dose and another 50mg for the second.

B-Vitamins: 1 tablet after post workout or cardio meal.

L-glutamine: 6 - 6gram servings. I will spread these through out the day. I will particularly hit 6 grams it after training. This will total to 36 grams of glutamine each day.

Week #2 - #3

I am going to supplement with 700mg of ALA per day for the second and third week. 350mg will be taken on the first dose and another 350mg for the second.

I am going to supplement with 900mcg of chromium picolinate per day for the second and third week. 450mcg will be taken on the first dose and another 450mcg for the second.

Vanadyl sulfate will be supplemented in doses 120mg each day during the second and third weeks. 60mg will be taken on the first dose and another 60mg for the second.

B-Vitamins: 1 tablet after post workout or cardio meal.

L-glutamine: 6 - 6gram servings. I will spread these through out the day. I will particularly hit 6 grams it after training. This will total to 36 grams of glutamine each day.

Week #4

I am going to supplement with 1000mg of ALA per day for the final week. 500mg will be taken on the first dose and another 500mg for the second.

I am going to supplement with 1000mcg of chromium picolinate per day for the final week. 500mcg will be taken on the first dose and another 500mcg for the second.

Vanadyl sulfate will be supplemented in doses 140mg each day during the final week. 70mg will be taken on the first dose and another 70mg for the second.

B-Vitamins: 1 tablet after post workout or cardio meal.

L-glutamine: 6 - 6gram servings. I will spread these through out the day. I will particularly hit 6 grams it after training. This will total to 36 grams of glutamine each day.


It will be interesting to see the final results of this program. All I can say is go at it with a positive approach and get ready to use glucose disposal agents, use supplemental protein, drink a whole lot of fluids, and eat some protein!


1. Starr W.O. The ultimate "no fat gain" insulin program. Muscle Month. 4 Aug 2002.

2. Tsang H. Dr. HingHau Tsang's crusade on nutrition. Natural approach to Diabetes. 4 Aug 2002.

3. Painter, F.M. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Chiro Res Org. 4 Aug 2002.

4. Haycock B. Howz it work?: insulin mimickers and insulin sensitizers alpha lipoic acid, vanadyl, and chromium. Muscl Month. 1 Apr 2002.

5. Pierce D.P. Glycogen Supercompensation: A Book About Carbohydrate Loading. Metairie, LA: Pierce's Personal Training, Inc. 2002:34.

6. Cribb P. Submit Paul Cribb a question. AST Spor Sci. 5 Aug 2002.

7. Leklem J.E. Vitamin B-6. Dept Nut & Food Mngt. 5 Aug 2002.