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5 Best Seafood And Freshwater Fish Choices For Fitness

What are the best environmentally friendly seafood choices for building lean muscle? Here are the top 5, and the best ways to prepare them.

When it comes to your fitness gains, there's a boatload of reasons why you should make seafood a menu staple. The right choices can flood your body with a wallop of protein, supercharged fats, and key vitamins and minerals.

Yet choosing well has never been more important for your body or our waterways. Overfishing and destructive fishing practices have put some species at risk of going the way of the dodo. You'll also want to reel-in seafood that has little risk of having been contaminated by mercury, PCBs, and the like.

Thankfully, these catches of the day provide plenty of nutritional perks, are low in harmful chemicals, and get a thumbs-up from Mother Nature.


Also called black cod, sablefish from the deep waters of the north Pacific have a pearly white buttery flesh with a similar texture as halibut. It's exceptionally high in heart-healthy omega-3 fats, containing nearly 500 milligrams for each 1-ounce serving.

Researchers at Saint Louis University found that omega-3 fatty acids can dampen the inflammation associated with certain types of exercise, such as weight training. Studies also show that omega-3s act as anabolic agents in the body by activating muscle protein synthesis. The meat is also rich in the potent antioxidant selenium and includes plenty of protein to show your muscles some love.

Currently, wild sablefish populations in the waters off of Alaska are healthy due to stringent catch limits and are harvested using sustainable fishing methods such as bottom longlines which result in little bycatch. So look for fresh or frozen sablefish at your fishmonger labelled "wild Alaskan."

In the Kitchen

Similar to halibut, cod and tilapia, slabs of sablefish can be steamed, broiled, poached, baked, seared in a skillet or tossed on the grill. It's particularly toothsome when dressed with fresh salsas and reduction sauces.

Worthy alternatives

Pacific halibut, Alaskan lingcod.

Rainbow Trout

A good substitute to farmed salmon, rainbow trout has a delicate flesh that's slightly sweet tasting. The protein found in trout and other fish is abundant in the essential amino acids needed to instigate lean-body-mass-repair and growth. As with sablefish, trout delivers solid amounts of omega-3 fats to help fend off coronary woes. It's also a good source of niacin, a B vitamin necessary for the conversion of the food you eat into usable energy.

Much of rainbow trout at U.S. fishmongers is farmed in Idaho, where closed containment aquaculture systems are widely used to prevent escapes and contamination of surrounding waterways. For this reason, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch program gives farmed rainbow trout a Best Choice rating.

In the Kitchen

Any recipe calling for salmon can work wonderfully with trout fillets. A foolproof method is to simply season fillets with salt and pepper and then roast at 400?F for 12 minutes, or until the flesh just starts to flake easily. Serve with lemon wedges.

Whole, cleaned trout also can be stuffed with aromatics like herbs or lemon slices and placed on the grill or in the oven. Smoked trout is a tasty addition to sandwiches and salads.

Worthy alternatives

Wild Alaskan salmon, Arctic char.

Canned Sardines

Like jewelry and Kristen Bell, sardines prove that great things can come in small packages. Sardines are full-flavored and meaty (unlike much of the mass-produced canned tuna on store shelves) and harbor impressive amounts of protein, omega-3 fats and vitamin D.

A raft of research has found that people with higher levels of vitamin D are less likely to develop heart disease, type-2 diabetes, depression, and even certain cancers. Gym rats should take heed of a recent Korean study that discovered that higher intakes of vitamin D can help quell the muscle damage and inflammation resulting from working out.

In response to heavy fishing off the coasts of countries such as Greece, Morocco and Spain, populations of sardines in the Mediterranean Sea appear to be on the decline. So when possible, seek out Pacific sardines from the United States or Canada. Scooped up from north Pacific waters, the delicious and nutrient-dense canned sardines from Wild Planet are hard to beat.

In the Kitchen

Canned sardines work great on sandwiches, in pasta dishes, or strewn over pizza. You can also enjoy them straight from the can.

Worthy alternatives

Anchovies, Smelt.


As it turns out, mussels can give you muscles. Bada-bing! While low in calories, mussels are rich in protein and muscle-friendly omega-3 fatty acids. Each bite of the creamy meat also delivers iron, an essential mineral for delivering oxygen to your working muscles.

These shelled wonders also contain a strikingly high amount of B12, a vitamin your body uses to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. So at only about $3 per pound, the "poor man's oyster" provides a huge nutritional bang for your buck.

The majority of mussels available on the market are farmed, but unlike farmed salmon, there's nothing fishy about mussel farming. Cultivated mussels do not require fishmeal to grow, meaning there's no net loss of ocean protein and they clean the surrounding water they're reared in.

And, unlike many of the shrimp or salmon feedlots of the sea, mussel farms rarely involve antibiotic use. There's also little concern about the meat becoming contaminated with harmful compounds like mercury.

In the Kitchen

Even the most culinary challenged can put a plate of perfectly cooked mussels on the table fast. Simply rinse a pound or two and place in a large saucepan along with a cup or two of liquid, which could be anything from broth to canned tomatoes to coconut milk to white wine or even beer.

Then simmer until they pop open, discarding any that remain shut. You can also find smoked canned mussels in the canned fish aisle of most supermarkets. They're excellent served on crackers.

Worthy alternatives

Clams, Oysters.


While tilapia remains a much more popular seafood choice than freshwater catfish, in-the-know cooks understand that the latter has more flavor. Each 3-ounce serving supplies about 13 grams of muscle-building protein as well as a range of other important nutrients, including selenium, thiamine, vitamin B12 and the bone-building mineral phosphorus. It's also one of the most budget-friendly fish options.

Catfish gets a bad rap as a bottom feeder, but almost the entire product on the market is farmed. The Monterrey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch program gives U.S. farmed catfish a green light for sustainability; the fish are raised in closed, inland ponds using re-circulated water. Thus, there's no worry about pollution of surrounding waterways.

In the Kitchen

Rubs and marinades work well with catfish, which can then be grilled, pan seared, or baked in the oven. Chunks of catfish also work great in fish stews.

Worthy alternatives

Tilapia, U.S. Cod.

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