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Tri-Creatine Malate

Tri-Creatine Malate.

Clayton South, SPN (ISSA), is a recognized expert in the bodybuilding / fitness industry with over 150 bodybuilding, fitness and nutrition publications to his credit.

By: Clayton South

1. What is it and where does it come from?

Tri-creatine malate is a compound made from creatine monohydrate and malic acid. The substance is so named because the compound is made from three creatine molecules attached to one molecule of malic acid.

Tri-creatine malate is a white, odorless powder.

2. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

Creatine monohydrate, one of the substances that forms the compound Tri-creatine malate, is derived from glycine, arginine and methionine and helps to produce and circulate ATP - adenosine tri-phosphate - that is responsible for muscular contraction.1

Regular creatine supplementation has been shown to increase total body weight2, lean body mass3,4,5,6 muscle strength7,8 cardiovascular ability / endurance9,10,11 brain function12 and overall athletic performance.13,14,15,16,17,18

Not only that, but creatine monohydrate is especially effective at increasing muscle torque and explosive strength, maintaining free testosterone levels19, and preventing catabolism.20,21 It has also been shown to be a safe and effective method of improving performance and body composition.22

Malic acid is involved in the Krebs energy cycle as an intermediate substance, and helps to provide energy to the body. When malic acid and creatine monohydrate form the compound Tri-creatine malate, the resulting product is more water-soluble than regular creatine monohydrate, eliminates the possibility of gastric disruption, and is more efficient at efficaciously impacting the ATP cycle. Furthermore, Tri-creatine malate is believed to offer greater bioavailability over regular creatine monohydrate.

Users of Tri-creatine malate report substantial increases in endurance and recovery from intense exercise of appropriate duration.

3. Who needs it and are there any symptoms of deficiency?

No physiological need for Tri-creatine malate exists and thus no symptoms of deficiency exist.

Athletes and bodybuilders can benefit from Tri-creatine malate supplementation. Women and men from all age populations can derive benefit from Tri-creatine supplementation because of Tri-creatines ability to enhance quality of life as a result of its effects as listed above.

4. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

Strictly adhere to label recommendations.

REFERENCES

1. Kleiner, S.M. and M. Greenwood-Robinson. 1998. Power Eating. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

2. Kutz MR, Gunter MJ. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):817-21.

3. Racette SB. Creatine supplementation and athletic performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003 Oct;33(10):615-21.

4. Kreider, R.B., 1999. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Medicine 27:97-110.

5. Becque, M.D., et al. 2000. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32: 654-658.

6. Ingwal JS, Weiner CD, Morales MF, Davis E, Stockdale FE: Specificity of creatine in the control of muscle protein synthesis. J Cell Biol 63:145-151, 1974.

7. . Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):822-31.

8. Kambis KW, Pizzedaz SK. Short-term creatine supplementation improves maximum quadriceps contraction in women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Mar;13(1):87-96.

9. Chwalbinska-Moneta J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Jun;13(2):173-83.

10. Rico-Sanz, J. et al. (2000). Creatine enhances oxygen uptake and performance during alternating intensity exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 32: 379-385.

11. Urbanski, R.L., et al. 1999. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 9: 136-145.

12. Rae C, Digney AL, McEwan SR, Bates TC. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003 Oct 22;270(1529):2147-50.

13. Lehmkuhl M, Malone M, Justice B, Trone G, Pistilli E, Vinci D, Haff EE, Kilgore JL, Haff GG. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):425-38.

14. Kurosawa Y, Hamaoka T, Katsumura T, Kuwamori M, Kimura N, Sako T, Chance B. Creatine supplementation enhances anaerobic ATP synthesis during a single 10 sec maximal handgrip exercise. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):105-12.

15. Gill ND, Hall RD, Blazevich AJ. Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):272-5.

16. Rawson, E.S., et al. 1999. Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 80: 139-144.

17. Jones, A.M., et al. 1999. Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical fitness 39:189-196.

18. Skare OC, Skadberg, Wisnes AR: Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11:96-102, 2001.

19. French DN, Volek JS, Ratamess NA, Mazzetti SA, Rubin MR, Gomez AL, Wickham RB, Doan BK, McGuigan MR, Scheett TP, Newton RU, Dorofeyeva E, Kraemer WJ: The effects of creatine supplementation on resting serum hormonal concenrtrations during short-term resistence training overreaching. Med Sci Sports & Exerc 33:S203, 2001.

20. Persky AM, Brazeau GA. Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate. Pharmacol Rev 2001 Jun;53(2):161-76

21. Parise G, Mihic S, MacLennan D, Yarasheski KE, Tarnopolsky MA. Effects of acute creatine monohydrate supplementation on leucine kinetics and mixed-muscle protein synthesis. J Appl Physiol 2001 Sep;91(3):1041-7

22. Robinson TM, Sewell DA, Casey A, Steenge G, Greenhaff PL. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function. Br J Sports Med 2000 Aug;34(4):284-8

By: Clayton South

Clayton's Health Facts: Tri-Creatine Malate.
csouthca@gmail.com

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