There seems to be newer and newer forms of creatine hitting the market all the time. Monohydrate, liquid, creatine ethyl-ester, dicreatine malate, micronized, kre-alkalyn, and effervescent are just a few different types of creatine.
Is there a difference between the various forms of creatine?
Which is the best form of creatine? Why?
Which is the worst form of creatine? Why?
Should you change forms of creatine when changing your goals, such as bulking/cutting?
Bonus Question: Is creatine getting better as technology is getting better, or is nothing as good as the original? What do you see in the future for creatine?
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Creatine Supplementation: (Methylgluanido-Acetic Acid)
Creatine is one of the most potent muscle building supplements in the supplement world, and has been around for quite a long time too! An amino acid, creatine is found normally in the body, with 95% of it found in the skeletal muscle tissue. The body receives its creatine from food that is eaten, typically 2 grams per day. The body also makes its own creatine in the liver from other amino acids.
Creatine is an ergogenic (muscle building) supplement, and numerous studies have proven its effect. "Extra creatine is therefore ergogenic, because it may help generate more power output during intense exercise." (Exercise & Sports Nutrition Laboratory).
Creatine has also been proven to increase strength, performance, and muscle mass. "In addition, long term creatine supplementation produces greater gains in strength and sprint performance and may increase lean body mass." (Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory).
Other studies have proven creatine's health benefits, not only to bodybuilders or athletes, but to non-athletic and aging individuals.
Most people have no idea that creatine has such amazing health benefits as well as the obvious muscle building and energy providing one.
Believe it or not, research has shown that creatine can increase growth hormone production! Its no surprise that creatine is the most wide sold muscle building supplement in the world!
Various Forms:Is there a difference between the various forms of creatine?
Of course! Every type of creatine is different in composition, solubility, and effectiveness. Some creatines are more soluble than others, which, in turn, increases their effectiveness. Other creatines have chemicals attached which increase their absorption and uptake into the muscle, which eliminates the need for a loading phase. But basically, all creatines do the same thing:
- Volumizing muscle (increasing mass).
- Improving strength.
- Increases energy (ATP levels) for activities that require short bouts of quick energy such as lifting, sprinting, and HIIT cardio.
Here are the different types, their advantages and disadvantages, and which type I prefer (My choices are based on what I have learned from fellow bodybuilders and from reviews I have read, as well as price. I have not tried all of them.):
Creatine Monohydrate is the normal, original creatine that people have been using for decades. It is still the most wide sold creatine product out of all the rest. Purity is important when searching for a creatine product, because, the purer, the more effective! SKW creatine (made in Germany) is the purest creatine around (99.8%). Companies that use it will have to say CreapureTM.
- Almost all studies conducted concerning creatine used creatine monohydrate, and reached to amazing results and conclusions.
- Most effective type of creatine yet.
- Not very soluble in water.
- Low surface area, which decreases uptake of creatine into the muscle, causing only about 1% to be absorbed into the body.
- May contain impurities if not bought from a reputable company.
- Reports of diarrhea and stomach discomfort because insoluble creatine sits in the stomach attracting water.
- Causes water bloating in some people, which is an extra layer of water under the skin.
- Some people do not respond to this type of creatine (non-responders).
- Unstable in water and should be taken immediately after dissolving it.
- Does not require a loading phase.
It is one of the rare brands that uses SKW Creapure which is 99.8% pure!
[ Click here to learn more. ]
Micronized Creatine is essentially creatine monohydrate, except it has been micronized, which means the molecules of creatine have been divided or cut up. This increases their surface area 20 times, increasing absorption and reducing stomach discomfort.
- Essentially the same as monohydrate but with a larger surface area and smaller molecules, so the same amazing effects of monohydrate.
- Greatly reduces unwanted monohydrate side effects such as bloating and stomach discomfort.
- More effective than monohydrate, and most monohydrate non-responders should respond to this.
- Purer than monohydrate because it goes through more processes.
- Slightly more expensive than monohydrate
- Requires a loading phase
Higher Power Micronized Creatine
Get Ready For The Most Amazing Gains You Have Ever Seen!
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Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE):
CEE is a creatine molecule with an ester attached. Normal creatine molecules are zwitterions, or molecules with one positive end and one negative end. This causes less absorption into the body.
However, the ester counteracts the charges and allows for almost 99% absorption into the body! This removes the need for a loading phase, and is THE MOST absorbent creatine by far yet!
- More effective because of increased absorption.
- All users will respond to this.
- Does not cause any of the side effects of monohydrate such as bloating or stomach discomfort.
- No loading phase or a 1 day loading phase.
- Foul taste in powder form, some users reported it tasted like battery acid! There are capsule forms, however, that eliminate this.
- Expensive compared to monohydrate and micronized.
Controlled Labs Green Bulge
The Most Advanced Creatine Matrix Volumizer Ever To Reach The Market!
[ Click here to learn more. ]
Creatine Serum is arguably the most debated type of creatine every to be introduced to the market. Some users report astonishing results, while others claim no results at all. This is basically creatine dissolved in water. However, users who saw results reported better results with monohydrate. I would not suggest to anyone to use this kind of creatine.
- 1. No loading phase required because it absorbs easily.
- 2. Easy to use, just put a drop under the tongue.
- 3. Usually mixed with other vitamins and amino acids.
- Mounting scientific evidence indicates that serum is useless.
- Creatine is unstable in liquid and breaks down to creatinine if dissolved in liquid for a prolonged period of time. Creatinine is a useless substance which puts strain on the kidneys.
- Extremely expensive.
- Much less effective than monohydrate in aspect of increasing muscle mass, and to a lesser degree in aspect of increasing muscle strength.
I would never use this serum because of its reported ineffectively, and even in people who responded to it, the results were much less than monohydrate. However, this is the cheapest type:
CHEAPEST CREATINE SERUM
DIMAXX Muscle Creatine +
Increases Performance, Stamina, Strength And Wellbeing.
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Effervescent Creatine is basically creatine combined with sugar or sodium, and a chemical which causes bubbles in the liquid. This increases absorption and has a better taste.
- More absorption.
- Better taste.
- Extremely Expensive.
- Is combined with sugar and sodium, 2 foods bodybuilders should reduce.
- Debatable whether this is actually any different than monohydrate, or whether it even gives the same results.
ISS Research Complete Creatine Effervescent Power
Jay Cutler uses it, so who am I to debate that!
[ Click here to learn more. ]
Creatine Citrate is another form of creatine bonded with other molecules that increase absorption. Although slightly water-soluble and absorbent than creatine, they require double the amounts than monohydrate does and they are also much more expensive.
- Soluble and absorbent, will cause less stomach discomfort
- Requires double the dosage to be as effective as monohydrate.
There are no pure creatine citrate products available, all expensive and mixed with other stuff.
Tri & Di Creatine Malate:
These are another type of creatine bonded with other molecules (companies seem to love this) which increases absorption. The difference is, these have gotten positive feed back and do work! Tri is the more absorbent and soluble of the two. Tri Creatine Malate is a compound of molecules created from malic acid and creatine. Tri Malate has 3 monohydrate molecules attached and Di Malate has 2.
- Faster recovery and less fatigue during workout.
- More water soluble and absorbent.
- Cell Volumizing effect.
- Usually very expensive because it is mixed with other chemicals.
- Health effects are unknown.
S.A.N. V-12 Turbo
Revolutionary Performance-Enhancing And Muscle Volumizing Formula!
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Creatine Kre-Alkalyn is basically a special protected creatine which does not convert into useless creatinine as readily as other creatines before being absorbed into muscle tissue. It is another form of creatine bonded to a molecule. No clinical trials have been made on this type of creatine yet, but most user feedback is positive.
- No loading phase required.
- Less bloating and stomach discomfort.
- No studies have been carried out on this type of creatine yet.
Higher Power Pure Kre-Alkalyn
Efficiently Enhances Strength And Physical Performance!
[ Click here to learn more. ]
Creatine orate is another type of creatine bonded to a molecule. This time, the molecule is orotic acid. Orotic acid is a precursor of nucleic acids which help optimal cell functioning and energy use from ATP. So this is actually creatine, which has its own energy enhancing properties, and orotic acid, which increases ATP levels in 3 ways.
- More energy than what monohydrate will give.
- Decrease symptoms of fatigue.
- EXTREMELY expensive.
- Its effects have not been proven by studies or tests.
This has received nothing but amazing reviews. Enhances focus, energy levels, and creatine levels!
[ Click here to learn more. ]
Creatine Cocktails (Mixed With Glutamine/Nitric Oxide, Sugar... )
Creatine cocktails are usually mixed with other amino acids such as glutamine and taurine. Other creatine cocktails are mixed with nitric oxide. These products allow us to gain from both products, which help each other, and allow us to synergistically maximize their effects.
For example, the most famous of this effect is stacking (using at the same time) NO and creatine. They always give their users much more muscle gains than when using nitric oxide or creatine alone! So if you have the cash, and you're not worried about putting lots of supplements in your body, then this is for you!
- Cheap compared to the amount of supplements in the arsenal.
- Extremely effective as they take advantage of the synergetic effects of combining different supplements.
- Contain creatine transports and transports for the other ingredients which increase absorption. This doubles the effectiveness of these already extremely effective products.
- Uses many kinds of chemicals, not all their effects have been thoroughly studied.
- Means putting a large amount of supplements in the body.
- Expensive as a product.
Here are some of what I believe are the most effective cocktails around:
Best Type:What is the best type of creatine?
Why? Because it is only slightly more expensive than monohydrate, while providing enormous side benefits such as much more solubility and absorption into the body (99% more!), and it is provided in convenient capsule form. CEE has also been proven to be much more effective than monohydrate because massive amounts are absorbed into the muscle without harm.
This is unlike creatine monohydrate, where users reported bloating, stomach pains, and diarrhea from using the product as suggested! CEE allows for higher absorption rate, which means more creatine reaches the muscle, which means bigger stronger muscles, which means better results!
All of this without the negative effects of creatine such as bloating, insolubility, muscle cramps, and stomach pains and diarrhea. CEE has been called the breakthrough and miracle product of creatine, and I agree!
I know this sounds outrageous, but I believe creatine monohydrate is actually the worst form of creatine around! I'm entitled to my opinion! Anyways, I think so because monohydrate is insoluble, causes stomach discomfort, and only 1% of it is absorbed into muscle tissue.
Also, it only works for 80% of users, so 1/5 of people are non-responders to monohydrate! And we still get amazing results from it! So why not use something more advanced at the same price such as micronized creatine for example. Micronized creatine is basically purer and more soluble than monohydrate, but it's still the exact same chemical!
I believe, for people who want to stick with what's been proven and works, micronized creatine is best over monohydrate with the same effects and less of the side effects. And for those who want something better, CEE is best, but not monohydrate!
Goals:Should you change forms of creatine when changing your goals such as bulking/cutting?
I do suggest one change the form of creatine he uses when cutting. Some creatines, such as creatine monohydrate and micronized creatine to a lesser degree, have been reported to cause bloating and water retention. During cutting, your objective is to get as ripped and fat-free and lose as much weight as possible.
Water retention increases weight, and makes you bloated and soft, so you will gain weight and lose definition if you use a creatine such as monohydrate or micronized. As a result, I would suggest, for cutting, one use a more soluble creatine such as CEE or creatine serum or tri creatine malate.
For bulking, your aim is to gain as much muscle weight as possible, and you don't care about how ripped or defined you look. As a result, it's ok to take creatine monohydrate or micronized creatine during a bulking phase.
But for someone who wants to keep his definition up all year round, I would suggest to use CEE, because it is the most soluble and absorbent creatine yet, and it is even more effective than regular monohydrate.
Note, creatine will lose its effectiveness during cutting, and will not put on any muscle. It will only serve as a supplement to give you energy pre-workout, so it is not necessary to take creatine post-workout during cutting phases. As a result, one doesn't need to use creatine during cutting, but it can help to a lesser extent.
Is It Improving?Is creatine getting better as technology is getting better, or is nothing better than the original?
In my opinion, there are some advancements in creatine that have been extremely effective to improve it. An example of this is CEE, which I believe is the most effective form of creatine currently out there. It is much more soluble and absorbent, and absorbs 99% as opposed to the 1% of monohydrate! This makes it much more effective.
However, there have also been advancements that are useless and create products that are less effective than monohydrate. Unfortunately, these new creatines have just been scams by companies to make a new creatine and call it a breakthrough.
An example of these advancements is the creatine serum, which is useless. If it hasn't been made within the same month, the chances of it being pure creatine instead of creatinine are very low.
The original still has its uses and advantages, such as being cheap, available, and most reliable form. I believe the disadvantages such as the bloating effect, the low amount of responders, and the stomach pains and diarrhea outweigh the advantages. I believe micronized creatine should now be considered the original, because it is essentially pure monohydrate, but broken into smaller molecules to increase surface area and therefore absorption.
I believe that the best form of creatine is CEE, and more and better forms will eventually come out. We must learn to differentiate between company scam forms such as the serum, and high quality, increasingly effective products such as CEE and micronized creatine. More of these will be created by technology; we just have to spot them!
Future:What do you see in the future for creatine?
The future will surely bring is more stunningly effective products, each more effective than before. I believe we will see a change in trends from combining molecules to creatine, to more effective creatines with added chemicals into the powder which allow the muscle to utilize more of the creatine, and increase its capacity to handle creatine.
We may even see new forms of creatine such as trans-dermal gels, injections... . Only the future can tell, but what's for sure is it will keep getting better!
Creatine Myths Exposed:
- Caffeine will not counter-act the effects of creatine, and may even help! (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 34, Number 11, 2002 Mike Doherty, Paul M. Smith, R. C. Richard Davidson, and Michael G. Hughes)
- Creatine is not a steroid!
- Sugar is not necessary for absorption of creatine, but it will help. There are easier ways for absorption such as using micronized creatine or CEE.
- Drink lots of water with creatine.
- Creatine should not be taken dissolved in an acid.
- Some people do not respond to monohydrate.
- Creatine causes some people to bloat or retain water.
- Taking creatine with sugar will increase absorption, but taking creatine with sugar and protein will double that!
- Take the creatine with the protein and take the sugar after 1 hour. This will allow the insulin spike, protein spike, and creatine spike to be roughly at the same time. Insulin spikes occur roughly 30 min after ingesting the sugar, while protein and creatine tend to take about 90 minutes to be at their highest concentration in the blood stream.
2nd Place - NoNameNecessary
Creatine is currently the most popular and most commonly used sports supplement. It is the number one selling supplement, sales are estimated at around $100-200 million dollars a year, and can benefit any athlete looking for an increase in strength, mass, and overall endurance.
However, all you find in the media, the magazines, and on television are people speaking about creatine who are grossly misinformed. I am here to shed some light on the subject of creatine and its many (new) forms and the one dinosaur that you won't find in any museums, creatine monohydrate.
Creatine: A Brief Overview
Many people know of creatine, and what it is used for, but many actually lack the knowledge of what creatine really is. It is the result of a combination of three amino acids (methionine, glycine, and arginine). Creatine, short for methyl guanidine acetic acid, can be found in your own body... in about 120 grams that are stored as creatine phosphate.
(Creatine phosphate will be further discussed later on in this article.) Many foods that can be found in your local supermarket, such as beef and salmon, are high in creatine, but the creatine that can be gained from pounds of those foods can be found in as little as one scoop of creatine.
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is basically the "power" behind your muscles (i.e. engine to car). Creatine's primary use is for the re-synthesis, or re-storage, of the muscles ATP. The science behind this is complicated, but basically, when you lift weights, you contract your muscles, which requires the bonds that are found in ATP to split, leaving you with adenosine diphospate, or ADP.
When this bond is broken, the cell is given power and the contraction occurs. When the cells entire build up of ATP has been called upon, however, that cell cannot contract any longer. Then, the body must rebuild its stores of ATP, and there are several ways this can be done.
However, we are only concerned with the use of creatine phosphate, which also happens to be the fastest way, without the use of oxygen. When creatine phosphate is split, it yields the "phosphate" part of the molecule. Then, this phosphate combines, or bonds, with the ADP to again from ATP.
Thus, supplementation with creatine, and further creatine phosphate, allows for quicker regeneration of the ATP within the cells. More simply, creatine enhances your output when lifting weights.
What Does All Of This Mean?
As I said, creatine phosphate is used to replenish the bodies stores ATP, and increase the amount of creatine that is found in the muscle. However, the body's actual level of natural creatine and creatine phosphate is well below that of which it can actually hold.
Thus, increasing the level of creatine intake means that you can reach your body's "maximum holding level" of creatine phosphate. Also, it appears that when one supplements with creatine, the ability for the muscle to hold glycogen is enhanced.
Glycogen is an intramuscular (found inside the muscles) carbohydrate that fuels anaerobic activities that the cardiopulmonary system cannot, i.e. heavy weightlifting. Many studies have shown that increasing glycogen stores leads to added recovery and muscle hypertrophy, or muscle growth. Therefore, because glycogen requires added water to enter into the cell, it leads to added muscle mass and fuller muscles.
That's All Good & Well, But...Is there a difference between the various forms of creatine?
Simply put, yes, each and every creatine is different. There are many different forms of creatine, from creatine monohydrate to creatine ethyl ester to creatine orotate. The following is a look into each of the common types of creatines:
Creatine Ethyl Ester:
Creatine Ethyl Ester, or CEE, is your basic monohydrate with an ester attached. Those esters are formed by a process known as esterification, which is the reaction of carboxylic acids and alcohols. Creatine monohydrate has many studies that show that it increases the overall muscle mass of your body, however, the uptake of regular monohydrate is very poor.
As I said, CEE is monohydrate with an extra ester... but what does that added ester mean? Basically, it means that it has all of the same benefits of monohydrate, but the dosage requirements are lower, there is no loading phase, increased absorption, and that the "creatine bloat" will be no more. Many non-responders also find themselves responding to CEE.
Rating: 4.25 out of 5 stars
Creatine Ethyl Ester has all of the basic benefits of the famous monohydrate, but the added ester allows the body to absorb it much easier. PrimaForce CEE is one of the cheapest and most effective CEE supplements around. Very solid.
Creatine monohydrate is bar none, the most popular bodybuilding supplement. It is the original form of creatine that was introduced to the public over ten years ago. Thus, it is the most studied form of creatine and has the most scientific evidence, out of all the newer forms of creatine, to prove that is truly effective. It has been shown to increase athletic performance, added stamina, and to improve the rate of recovery.
Creatine monohydrate has been shown to produce some negative side effects. However, it all depends on whether or not you personally will tend to experience them, or not. The most commonly reported side effects are bloating, cramping (stomach), and cases of diarrhea.
As long as you drink enough water, you will likely avoid any problems that would arise from supplementation with monohydrate. No matter what, the positives certainly outweigh the negatives.
Prolab Creatine Monohydrate
Rating: 3.75 out of 5 stars
Prolab Creatine Monohydrate is one of the cheapest and most effective monohydrates around. This certainly won't hit your wallet as hard as some of the other forms of creatine will.
Micronized Creatine Monohydrate:
Micronized creatine monohydrate is a newer form of creatine monohydrate that sets a new standard for the world's regular creatine monohydrates. The science behind micronized monohydrate is that the "micro-particles" are actually twenty times smaller than in the original monohydrate.
Although this process adds to the cost, it is just slightly, and the added benefits are worth the additional costs. Some added benefits of micronized creatine monohydrate are faster absorption, higher efficiency, added purity, mixes easier/less "clumping", and no more upset stomachs.
Higher Power Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Rating: 3.5 out of 5 stars
Higher Power is one of the cheapest, in terms of price (not quality), brands around. This micronized monohydrate has all the benefits of regular monohydrate without the negative side effects.
When you combine creatine monohydrate and malic acid, the result is a white, odorless powder known as tri-creatine malate. It is made from three creatine molecules that are attached to one malic acid molecule, hence the name tri-creatine malate.
When this compound is formed, it is said to be more soluble in water than your basic creatine monohydrate. What this eliminates is the possibility of any gastric/intestinal disruption, and also effects the ATP cycle more efficiently than basic monohydrate. Also, tri-creatine malate is said to more bioavailable than the other forms of creatine.
Rating: 2.75 out of 5 stars
Xpand offers quality ingredients for a very low price. Very good product, and also, a very effective creatine for building muscle mass and increased stamina.
Kre-Alkalyn is said to have the benefits of regular creatine, without the side effects associated with regular creatine monohydrate. The results of creatine monohydrate supplementation is very well documented, thus many people believe Kre-Alkalyn will have the same ergogenic abilities.
Kre-Alkalyn is produced at a higher PH level than your basic creatine monohydrate. Many believe that the conversion of creatine into creatinine is directly related to the functions of PH levels, and that the resulting conversion of creatine into creatinine, a waster product, can be avoided by manipulating the PH level. Thus, stopping this conversion will allow better absorption, and less creatine is necessary.
Sci-Fit Kre-Alkalyn 1500
Rating: 2.45 out of 5 stars
I like the affordability of Sci-Fit Kre-Alkalyn, however, I feel Kre-Alkalyn lacks any actually scientific proof to the claims it makes. If it works for you, though, it should be a very useful creatine, and is definitely worth the addition into your supplement arsenal.
Although liquid creatine is supposedly better absorbed by the body there is much skepticism as to whether or not it actually raises the body's creatine levels. There are those who love liquid creatine and then there are those who believe that creatine will not be stable in a liquid form over time because it breaks down to creatinine.
Since liquid creatine bypasses your body's digestion phase, the body absorbs it more efficiently and quicker. Creatine in the powdered form take at least forty-five minutes to one hour, and since it is known to bind to food, the absorbance is hindered.
Hence, many athletes who exercise will not eat several hours before exercise in order to increase the rate of uptake of the monohydrate, but with liquid creatine, this is not a problem.
Many tend to stick to basic powders because they are cheaper, but if money is not an issue, liquid creatines are an option. Liquid creatine is something that works on a person to person basis, and it is recommended that you try it for yourself before passing any judgments.
DIMAXX Muscle Creatine +
Rating: 1.25 out of 5 stars
It is cheaper per serving than the other leading liquid creatine, MMUSA ATP Advantage Creatine Serum, and thus, you get more servings for your money.
Effervescent creatine is a new trend that is catching on with some bodybuilders and athletes. People prefer effervescent creatine due to the added taste, increased absorption, added solubility, and the lack of bloating that regular powdered creatines do not offer.
As an added bonus, the sugar in effervescent creatines might increase the rate of uptake of the creatine into the cells. Although, the added carbohydrates aren't need, and thus, effervescent creatines are not recommended.
Rating: 1 out of 5 stars
I just don't believe in effervescent creatines. Although the taste is better, they lack any scientific evidence as to whether or not they really work. My advice: look elsewhere.
Best Form:Which is the best form of creatine?
Creatine Ethyl Ester:
Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE) is the new craze in the bodybuilding world. However, it is not a trend that is likely to die out quickly. CEE has all of the benefits of regular monohydrate, plus some. It builds muscle mass and increases stamina in ways that only monohydrate has been shown to do.
However, CEE does not lead to the infamous "creatine bloat" that results from monohydrate usage. There is no loading phase, no maintenance phase, and no complicated cycling.
Simply, you keep your daily consumption constant at around 2.5-3 grams post-workout on training days, and on non-training days, you can take it in the morning, on an empty stomach. Also, it is just as affordable as regular monohydrate. What isn't there to like?
Worst Form:Which is the worst form of creatine?
Creatine does not, in my opinion, stay stable in liquids. Thus, the idea of liquid creatines is not a great one. Although some people swear by them, just as many feel no increased strength and see no improvements in overall mass. The ideas are there, there just needs to be more scientific research and more scientific backing.
Goals:Should you change forms of creatine when changing your goals, such as bulking/cutting?
It all depends on which forms of creatine you are using. In my opinion, the only creatine that it is necessary to cycle off of is creatine monohydrate. Monohydrate is infamous for the added water weight and the bloating, thus, when cutting; it is not optimal for fat loss and water loss.
When cutting, you might want to switch to a more absorbable form of creatine, such as CEE or Micronized Monohydrate. However, if you use anything other than Monohydrate when bulking, it is not necessary to cycle off when cutting.
There you have it folks... a quick overview of the common creatines. As always, thanks for reading, and see you next time. God bless!
Bonus Question:Is creatine getting better as technology is getting better, or is nothing as good as the original? What do you see in the future for creatine?
As always, as time goes on, something will improve. It is the same when it comes to creatine. New creatines, such as creatine orotate and creatine citrate, are being discovered as new scientific experiments are done. All they need is a little bit more fine tuning and for the price to drop a bit, and they too will be mainstream creatines.
In the future, I'd like to see liquid creatines made more effective. I love the idea of injecting creating into the bloodstream; however, I currently fear the breakdown of creatine into creatinine. If they can perfect that, liquid creatine will be very, very popular in the future.