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Clayton's Health Facts: Tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine).

Clayton South, SPN (ISSA), is a recognized expert in the bodybuilding / fitness industry with over 150 bodybuilding, fitness and nutrition publications to his credit.

What Is It?
And Where Does It Come From?

Tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine) is an amino acid that is derived from tyrosine. It acts as a neurotransmitter.

Food sources include:

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What Does It Do?
And What Scientific Studies Give Evidence To Support This?

Tyramine is a common ingredient in over-the-counter fat loss supplements because of its ability to increase dopamine levels (thereby alleviating the depression that can result from calorie and fat-restricted diets), and provide energy (through the release of norepinephrine - adrenaline).

Tyramine helps to induce fat loss by increasing adrenaline secretion, by increasing muscular glucose uptake in the absence of simple carbohydrates, thus eliminating or reducing the need for rises in insulin levels.

For the dieting athlete, tyramine's ability to increase glucose uptake in the absence of simple carbohydrates means that insulin spikes can be avoided and muscle glycogen stores can be restored post-exercise.

What Is Glycogen?
Glycogen is the principal stored form of carbohydrate energy (glucose), which is reserved in muscles. When your muscles are full of glycogen, they look and feel full.

Elevated insulin levels can lead to decreases in growth hormone, IGF-1 and testosterone levels. Within the context of high percentages, elevated insulin levels will lead to a decrease in protein synthesis, and an increase in muscular atrophy.

What Is IGF-1?
IGF-1 is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. IGF-1 plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults.

IGF-1 is produced by the liver upon stimulation by HGH (human growth hormone), and stimulates and regulates cell growth and multiplication in bones, cartilage, and nerve cells, among other things.

Not good. Dieting athletes know that controlling insulin is key to becoming and staying lean.

Tyramine affects blood pressure, although clinical research demonstrates that its effects upon blood pressure are mixed. Any effects of tyramine on blood pressure is believed to result from tyramine's conversion into octopamine and synephrine.

Several trials have demonstrated that tyromine can be lipogenic - fat forming - and can stop the breakdown of fat. Again, clinical research has not fully explored these findings and further research is needed to understand fully the relationship between tyramine administration and lipogenesis.

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Who Needs It?
And What Are Some Symptoms Of Deficiency?

To determine need, persons should consult with their physician prior to supplementation.

Because tyramine is a product of the enzymatic conversion of tyrosine, a tyramine deficiency can be associated with a tyrosine deficiency and its symptoms.

Symptoms of a tyrosine deficiency can include mental apathy, low blood pressure and depression. As mentioned some of these symptoms may be seen with a tyramine deficiency as well.

How Much Should Be Taken?
And Are There Any Side Effects?

Strictly adhere to label recommendations.

Those taking MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) drugs for depression or those susceptible to headaches or hypertension should not supplement with tyramine because of its action on the oxidase pathway and its effects on blood pressure.

Tyramine may induce headaches in some individuals and may also increase heart rate and blood pressure when administered in high amounts.