Hydrolysates produced through very low heat, low acid and mild enzymatic filtration processes, (those highest in the essential and the branched chain amino acids), are potentially the most anabolic for short-term (120-minutes of less between feedings) protein synthesis.
Hydrolysates are whole proteins such as caseinates or whey that have been hydrolyzed with water into smaller pieces by enzymatic action and combined into chains of amino acids.
They are also called peptides. The greater anabolic assessments of hydrolysates are either based on sacrificed carcass weight and/or all the established therapeutic nitrogen retention indexes, obligatory to livestock and human measurements.
Once more, the higher hydrolysate assessments go beyond digestive predictions and exist regardless of any alimentary, digestive or mal-absorptive patterns such as may be elicited in HIV populations with advanced T-cell suppression and/or in those populations with other absorption disease such as those with Sprue characteristics.
Whey hydrolysates are powerful proteins that may be more quickly absorbed, more so than many other forms, as the human system prefers peptides to whole proteins. The higher biological value and greater absorption of peptides (and isolates) may trigger increases in growth factors (IGF-1) and decrease the release of cortisol hormones in high stress (training) situations.
Concentrates of whey and whey isolates must be processed via low temperature and low acid and via ultra-filtration techniques versus ion exchange, (in the case of isolates), to retain all the most important peptide functional qualities inherent to whey.
However, all types of whey can be quickly absorbed through the lumen of the gut and intestine under specific metabolic dynamics, peculiar to the inherent bioactive peptide functions. This situation certainly occurs where there is energy deprivation, depleted muscle glycogen and gastric voiding. Indeed, under these conditions, whey would more likely not be efficiently utilized for incorporation into striated muscle cells and instead shuttled to energy through the liver.
Maximum Muscle Absorption
For maximum anabolism, NPU, (net protein utilization) is a key element, and in this regard, our science reveals both livestock and humans have metabolic preferences for hydrolysates. They are relatively expensive, so while they are used in medicine, for those with absorption damage or disease, they are rarely utilized in human nutrition supplements, at least in any significant quantity.
In commercial applications, unless whey hydrolysate it is the first or second ingredient on a supplement label, then there is probably not enough in the product to influence upgrades in nitrogen retention, sufficiently.
As stated, whey isolates are another extremely high quality whey. For maximum anabolism isolates might be combined with whey hydrolysates. This is a correct anabolic nitrogen cascade in many circumstances, but still not all environments.
The inclusion of smaller amounts of whole whey concentrates and lactalbumin does not generally impede nitrogen retention. Despite lactose sugars, premium concentrates also have preferential absorptive characteristics.
If you are looking for the strongest whey blend commercially, then the inclusion of four whey proteins (concentrate, lactalbumin, isolate and hydrolysate) will give muscle-seeking athletes the best theoretical results based on the highest biological value (BV), BUT primarily ONLY for protein synthesis over the short (fast absorption). This is only half of the bio-phase protein absorption equation.
Slower Absorption Equals Maximum Nitrogen Retention
Believe it or not, the fast-acting muscle synthesis action ultimately, may NOT be as important for the long-term acquisition of muscle, as are slow or long- term protein absorption actions. At any rate, the above is the first phase of the two-phase approach for maximum muscle acquisition.
BV - P.E.R. - NPU
The protein BV is not the only thing you should use in determining an anabolic protein rating. P.E.R. is a rating that is actually based on the amount of lean tissue weight gain a protein will create. The highest P.E.R. of any protein is produced most consistently by whole egg protein not whey protein! So, commercially, including whole egg in nitrogen feeds or a multi species whey spectrum should create an ultimate anabolic blend for nitrogen retention.
My group has a service/use state grant for research in Kentucky and we have worked with a Kentucky based commercial grade Protein Company. We have used Beverly International medical grade hydrolysates of whey, (consisting of 34% - 36% hydrolysate), beef plasma and caseinate hydrolyses. These proteins are predominately hydrolysates and isolates (with almost equal components (actually 70% as 36-34% each), they also include smaller dosing of premium grade whey concentrates, lactalbumin, whole egg proteins and other milk isolates.
Upon further complete chemical analysis, about 50% of all these Beverly-use products are proportionately the essential amino acids and the balance (50%) are of the 3-branched chain amino acid family.
Application To The Second Phase In Human Protein Nutrition
Functionally, the best times for ingestion of the fast-acting proteins include (perhaps) the first meal upon arising and prior to and just after heavy bouts of resistance exercise. But, one might also ingest these proteins with meals in order to increase overall protein utilization and include other nutrient profiles.
It has been suggested that anabolic steroids have both primary anabolic action and equally, anti-catabolic action. Anti-catabolic proteins include nitrogen sources that have a long duration of metabolic activity (phase 2). The best proteins for longer metabolic action include milk isolates and certain bioactive peptides of casein, such as casomorphins, as well as beef-plasma hydrolysates.
Our research shows that these proteins do create a slower but more constant nitrogen restoration than whey, instead of 120-minutes, perhaps up to 400-minutes. And overall, the great bulk of new research suggests that it is the slow proteins that contribute the majority to the processes of muscle building in humans.
Moving livestock applications to human bodybuilders (of which I am one, that's human, not livestock), while a 30-60 minute post exercise period is important, (rest and nutrition), total recovery of fiber systems and energy restoration may take days.
Consider, if it takes you 72-hours to fully recover from an intense weight session and you are only eating specific to quick recovery (and even for anti-catabolic action just after your workout) then you are only making applications to of 1.4% of your TOTAL recovery time! Full recovery would of course include fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
In terms of a "best" protein, albumin of the egg (white protein) and associated properties with the yolks are important at this time too, because egg has an insulin moderating effect. This is whole egg. Why? NPU for one, but whole egg utilizes higher intakes of carbohydrates. They drag along the "fuel injecting insulin sensitivity" and the enhanced sensitivity still keeps insulin levels from getting too high, (which might cause fat storage or even open the blood nitrogen shuttle and cause nitrogen to leave the blood too quickly).
A 'healthier' dose of lipids/fatty acids with anti-catabolic proteins will help create a steady stream nitrogen delivery over an extended time period. To make full muscle utilization and recovery, you do need fats.
As I stated, in our research, Beverly medical hydroylsates are used although there are several commercial applications that you can benefit from.
The applications we use are human supplementation with combinations of milk isolates including caseinates, hydrolyzed beef, egg (slow) and all forms of whey (fast). Taking advantage of Bio-Phase Nitrogen loading is the quickest most efficacious way to exploit all of your growth potential.
There are a few critical times for anti-catabolic nitrogen ingestion and they include first meal, at bedtime, and during long periods of time between feedings. This even could include the middle of the night. This is a simple way to use milk isolates/casein/beef protein nutrition exponentially--- to multiply tissue growth.
Ultra Size in all 3 cases! It contains all the elements of high performance nutrition with longer acting nitrogen sources. Anytime you have more than 3 hours between meals, use the Ultra Size. Ultra Size and or Muscle Provider can be mixed in non-fat milk (instead of H20), for even more anti-catabolic/anabolic proteins and increased calories for growth - milk proteins.