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Training Children: Building Blocks For A Great Resistance Program!

Physical inactivity & poor nutrition habits are ruining our lives. This is the first generation of children who will not outlive their parents. Get some valuable insight and tips about youth and training! Bonus: activity pyramid included.

Physical inactivity and poor nutrition habits are ruining our lives. This is the first generation of children who will not outlive their parents, according to a recent report. That is scary, particularly because this is preventable.

There is not some autoimmune disorder or widespread virus kids are suddenly contracting that's shortening their lifespan. It is simply physical inactivity and poor eating habits, which together lead to overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes (which many years ago was unheard of in children), and many other ailments.

Simply put, we need to move more and eat less!! And parents need to lead by example. Educating children is definitely an important step to improve their health, but kids are not buying their own groceries or cooking their own meals, so parents must play a role as well.

We touched briefly on nutrition for children and adolescents last time, so this time we're focusing on physical activity. I often hear from parents:

"Is it safe for my child to exercise or weight train?
I don't want to stunt his growth or injure him."

It's great to hear that parents are taking an active role in their child's health, so these types of questions are good.

Get Moving

First and foremost, before even considering lifting weights, jogging or anything else, turn off the computers, TV's, cell phones, IPOD's, and every other electronic device. We need to MOVE!

As many of you may be aware, the USDA updated the food pyramid in 2005. And, last I heard, they are fortunately following this up with an activity pyramid that is to be released in 2008. In fact, in yesterday's paper I saw a first attempt at this... and a very good one at that.

Check out this activity pyramid from the University of Missouri Here.

Activity Pyramid
Click Image To Enlarge.
Activity Pyramid.

This sums things up very well. Notice at the bottom of the pyramid, meaning the activity that should be done the most, is general "everyday activity." Things like playing, biking, skateboarding, sports - just being kids, which many have gotten away from.

As we move up the pyramid, there are more specific recommendations for aerobic and strength based activities. Finally, at the very top of the pyramid are sedentary things like watching TV, staring at a computer, and other things that put children and adults at risk for a number of diseases.

Click Image To Enlarge.
Kids Need To Play.

Weight Training:

    With all of that said and assuming most kids know how to "play", let's get a bit more into weight training, since this is a point of confusion for a lot of folks. Over the past 10 or 15 years, resistance training for children has gained acceptance and popularity, but that's not to say it's without controversy.

    Many believe that training closes growth plates too early, results in a lack of flexibility because the growing muscles become too tight, increases the risk of injury, and some have suggested it negatively affects hormone levels in growing children.

    However, governing bodies such as the National Strength and Conditioning Association, the American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine, and the American Academy of Pediatrics all suggest that children can benefit from a properly prescribed and supervised resistance training program.

    In fact, there is research to support each of the benefits from following a properly designed resistance training program.

    • Increased muscular strength and muscular endurance
    • Decreased injuries in sports and general recreational activities
    • Improved performance capacity in sports and recreational activities
    • Support bone development

Safety First!

What is most important, is to ensure a safety first approach meaning children need to learn about proper form and lifting techniques and should not be sent blindly into a weight room. They need to have competent supervision and be given a properly designed fitness program.

I always highly encourage parents to talk with the kids about learning body weight exercises first; a well respected strength coach and good friend of mine, Alwyn Cosgrove, always says that you should not even use weight unless you have mastered the body weight version first - and this goes for adults and children.

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For example, there is no need to get under a barbell for a chest press if you cannot comfortably do 10 or 12 pushups, using perfect form.

The best advice for anyone, children or adults, who are starting an exercise program and looking for general health improvement, is to work on full body movements, through the greatest ranges of motion possible. Learn to do a pushup properly, a chin-up and pullup, squat, deadlift, dips, and lunges.

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These all work large muscle groups and help build a strong foundation. Again, with children the emphasis needs to be on perfecting form - this means taking the ego out of the picture, not worrying about how much weight they or others are lifting, practicing proper movements, and of course focusing most of the time on general physical every single day, rather than sedentary down time.

Click Image To Enlarge.
Form Needs To Be Perfected On Basics Like The Pushup.

In addition, don't push a child into resistance training, but encourage them and work with them - lead by example. Before starting any resistance training program at all, here are a few basic guidelines for children and adolescents of various age groups; they are loosely adapted from the book Strength Training for Young Athletes, written by world renowned strength coaches, William Kraemer and Stephen Fleck.

  • Ages 5 - 7: Introduce child to basic exercises with little or no weight. Teach technique, progress from body weight calisthenics, low volume.

  • Ages 8 - 10: Continue to practice technique, use simple exercises, and monitor tolerance to exercise stress.

  • Ages 11 - 13: Teach all basic exercise techniques and introduce more advanced exercises, using little or no resistance.

  • Ages 14 - 15: progress to more advanced exercise programs, always emphasizing exercise techniques.

  • 16+: Entry level into adult programs assuming a solid foundation has been gained.

At What Age Did You Start Weight Training?

11 Or Younger.
20 Or Older.

For much more in depth and solid information, I highly suggest the book by Kraemer and Fleck, published by Human Kinetics.

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In summary, everyone needs to move, from infants to the elderly. It is most important to focus on general everyday activities, less overall sedentary behaviors, and then also work on some more specific physical activity (resistance, aerobic, flexibility, etc). Couple these positive habits with sound nutrition tips and you and your family will be much better off in the long run.

About The Author

    Christopher R. Mohr has a PhD in exercise physiology, is a registered dietitian, and is owner of Mohr Results, Inc.