What Is It?
And Where Does It Come From?
Manganese is an essential metallic trace mineral that is grayish-white in appearance.
It is found in dietary sources like green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, kidney beans and fruits like blueberries and pineapple.
What Does It Do?
And What Scientific Studies Give Evidence To Support This?
The body uses manganese in many processes.
Manganese is found in the cellular mitochondrion and is an important co-factor in energy production. Proper cellular mitochondrion function is essential for energy production, and manganese supports mitochondrion health through the activation of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme.
The SOD enzyme works to maintain healthy mitochondrion oxidant levels, thereby supporting mitochondrion health, mitochondrion function and mitochondrial energy production.
Manganese is essential to health because the body uses manganese to support proper bone, skin, cartilage and collagen production. In this way, manganese may support bone, skin and joint health.
Additionally, manganese supports healthy brain and nerve function, and it plays key role in the proper digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates by supporting digestive enzymes health.
Who Needs It?
And What Are Some Symptoms Of Deficiency?
Everyone in good health can benefit from manganese supplementation.
Symptoms of deficiency may include abnormal bone formation, stunted growth, physical deformities, male impotence and female sterility.
How Much Should Be Taken?
And Are There Any Side Effects?
The Recommended Daily Intake (R.D.I.) for manganese is 2 mg.
Manganese is well-tolerated and is believed to be non-toxic at doses equal to or less than 11mg daily. It is not well-tolerated at doses above 11mg daily.
Consult with a physician prior to manganese supplementation if you work with agricultural pesticides that contain manganese, if you are an insulin-dependant diabetic2, or if you are afflicted with the diseases cholestasis3 or cirrhosis.4
Manganese may be contraindicated with oral contraceptives.
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- Freeland-Graves JH. Manganese: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutr Today 1989;23:13-9 [review].
- Rubenstein AH, Levin NW, Elliott GA. Hypoglycaemia induced by manganese. Nature (London) 1962;194:188-9.
- Staunton M, Phelan DM. Manganese toxicity in a patient with cholestasis receiving total parenteral nutrition. Anaesthesia 1995;50:665.
- Krieger D, Krieger S, Jansen O, et al. Manganese and chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Lancet 1995;346:270-4.