Reprinted with permission from Peak Performance.
Where Science Comes Into Play ...
Science has now come to the aid of goalies with research which may help them to stay calm. It seems that in the split second before the striker hits the ball, the orientation of his or her hips indicates which way the ball will fly. The results were presented at the second Asian Congress on Science and Football in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Mark Williams, head of science and football at Liverpool John Moores University, explained:
His study investigated saving strategies by showing goalkeepers life-sized video footage of strikers before and during penalties. He stopped the film four times: 120 milliseconds before the kick; 40 milliseconds before; at the point of impact; and 40 milliseconds afterward. Each time, he asked the keepers to predict the outcome.
Semi-professionals were consistently better than unskilled amateurs at guessing which of four target spots in the goal the ball would hit.
At 120 milliseconds before impact, half the semi-pros guessed correctly. The success rate rose to 62 percent 40 milliseconds before, and 82 percent at impact. At each stage, the amateurs lagged ten percentage points behind the semi-pros.
Williams reported that other visual cues include angle of the striker's run-up and the orientation of the non-kicking foot. Ian Franks and Todd Harvey at the University of British Columbia identified this latter factor as the crucial cue in a study of 138 penalties in World Cup competitions between 1982 and 1994.
The non-kicking foot pointed to where the ball would go 80 percent of the time.
The question is, will this information make things harder for strikers, or will it introduce a new dimension to the mind game as strikers try even harder to disguise their intentions?