The ultimate goal of this series of articles is not to overwhelm or to impress the audience with technical knowledge, but rather lay a foundation for understanding cellular signal transduction. Read on to learn more...
The Language Of Cells!
Part 1: Cell Signaling.
Cellular signaling is, at the most basic level, the method by which cells communicate with each other, and process various environmental cues to mount an appropriate response.
Part 2: Cell Type & Signal Specificity.
Having established the advantages of communicating in this manner, the next logical question is how the cell regulates all of these effects. In order to understand regulation, though, we must separate causes from effects and distinguish long-term consequences from short-term ones.
Part 3: Signaling Concepts.
This month, we will step just past the receptor and look at what happens once a hormone binds the insulin receptor and undergoes autophosphorylation. The role of docking proteins in signal amplification, diversity, and specificity will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms surrounding the latter effect.
Part 4: PI3Ks.
The PI3K family of lipid-protein kinases is a critical group of enzymes not only in insulin signaling, but in a multitude of other pathways, some not even related to receptor tyrosine kinases.
Part 5: The AGC-Family Of Protein Kinases.
We will use the AGC protein kinases as a platform for discussion this month. AGC refers to a group of protein kinases, including protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG), and protein kinase C (PKC). All AGC family members share certain structural characteristics that make their regulation similar in many ways.
Part 6: Gene Knockout.
In this part, we finally have traversed far enough that we can look at the first and most well-known terminal effect of insulin - stimulation of glucose uptake.