With 2006 behind us, now is the time to zero-in on our new years goals with renewed enthusiasm. New years resolutions are all about life change, and the kinds of changes we typically desire are those that concern our bodies.
Most of us would like to change our lives so as to allow time for exercise and healthy eating, as doing these things ultimately lead to improved quality of life and greater productivity and enjoyment in the family, social and career departments.
Although sticking with well-planned training program is a fundamental way in which to achieve our long-term physical goals, be it fat loss, muscle gain, or both, good nutrition is what sets the foundation for any progress in these areas.
Without the proper nutrition obtained through a diet rich in macronutrients such as protein, carbohydrates and good fats, and the vitamins and minerals that comprise our micronutrient intake, training efforts will be in vain. In fact, very little training progress, if any, can occur if a good diet is not in place from the outset.
Many who begin a good training program are often at a loss as to what good diet consists of, they become confused about what they should eat given the amount of misinformation and different approaches to eating currently circulating.
Invariably they will resort to the kind of hit or miss approach that supplies very little of the right nutrients at the right times, or even worse, totally neglect proper nutrition in favour of the wide variety of convenience foods available.
With all the conflicting information on diet and the large amount of readily accessible, nutritionally dubious fast foods on the market, what is a prospective gym goer to do?
I would suggest they arm themselves with as much relevant information regarding what the various nutrients do before putting into place a diet containing the types of foods they should be eating. And the best way to properly construct a solid eating program is to first learn what the various nutrients are and the individual effects they have on the body. Then a plan can be tailored to your individual needs, a plan that includes all the essential nutrients at the right times, in appropriate amounts.
The key to good eating, therefore, is to know what the major nutrients do, what foods these nutrients can be found in and at what times and in what quantities to include them. Before looking at the ways we can design an effective diet for the beginner trainer, we will first take look at what the most important nutrients are and how they can compliment our training efforts.
The macronutrients will form the basis of your diet, as they provide the raw materials needed to train for fat loss and muscle building, both key objectives of a good training program. The three main macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Let us take a closer look at their composition and how they can impact our progress.
Often referred to as the key bodybuilding nutrient, protein, comprised of 20 amino acids and supplying four calories per gram, is responsible for helping to build the muscles, along with every cell in our bodies. Without an adequate supply of protein, no additional muscle growth will result from your training efforts - period.
In fact, insufficient protein will actually result in muscle wasting, as exemplified by those who run marathons. Marathon runners typically eat very little protein and train for many hours at a time. Their physiques reflect the type of state a protein deficit can put us into - not the kind of conditioning a prospective bodybuilder seeks.
Of the 20 amino acids found in proteins (amino acids are the structural units of protein and determine the quality of a particular protein source) 10 of these are essential and ten are non-essential. The body can manufacture the non-essential variety, whereas the essential type must be obtained through a well balanced diet.
Food sources low in the essential amino acids, therefore, are a poor choice for those who wish to build muscle. A good diet plan would include proteins of a high biological value (HBV). High biological value refers to the more complete proteins that supply an abundance of muscle-building essential amino acids.
| Calculating BV:
BV = (nitrogen retained / nitrogen absorbed) * 100
A BV of 100 would indicate complete utilization of a given dietary protein, in that 100% of the protein ingested was stored in the body with none lost.
These amino acids are of vital importance when we train intensely with weights - weight training actually results in micro-trauma to the muscle being trained and this process, a breaking down of the muscle-tissue, requires sufficient protein to re-build the muscle to greater levels.
With sufficient protein, combined with an adequate training stimulus, the muscles should compensate by becoming larger and stronger in preparation for subsequent workouts. It follows therefore that the muscles need a steady supply of protein at all times to allow for the synthesising of new muscle tissue.
Over the years a debate has raged regarding exactly how much protein a weight trainer with a view to improving muscle density should consume.
Some feel lower levels - .5 grams per pound of bodyweight per day for example - is ample for repair and recovery purposes. This would equate to 90 grams of protein for the 180lb trainee, an amount that could be taken in three daily 30-gram feedings. While some still subscribe to similar percentages, most recognize that a hard training bodybuilder, or even a recreational lifter, needs at least double this amount, if not more.
Some even go as high as two to three grams per pound of bodyweight. The percentage largely recommended though is that of one gram per pound of bodyweight - this amount will cover all bases to ensure optimal muscle repair.
- Build muscle, as it is the body's repair nutrient.
- Lose body fat, as it stimulates the metabolism better then any other nutrient.
- Maintain feelings of fullness, to eliminate cravings for the wrong foods.
It is also recognised that smaller feedings of protein throughout the day are the ideal as these will assist with proper assimilation, which will lead to better protein uptake by the muscles, improved metabolic function, as six smaller meals, as opposed to three larger ones, will speed up the metabolism to a greater extent to help with fat burning, and, of course, muscle building, as the muscles will obtain all the amino acids they need for growth throughout the day with regular feedings.
Overall, protein will help you to:
If protein is the building nutrient, carbohydrates serve as the body's primary energy nutrient during intense workouts. Also supplying four calories per gram, carbohydrates work in tandem with protein to ensure an optimal training experience and resultant muscle growth along with fat loss.
Without an adequate training stimulus, consuming the required amount of protein will have a negligible effect on muscle growth. It is the carbohydrates that allow us to train to our fullest potential.
Carbohydrates come in several different forms, all of which, in specific quantities at certain times, assist with bodybuilding progress. The two different types of carbohydrates to be featured in any good diet and an explanation of each follow:
The complex carbohydrates, so named because they break down over a longer period to sustain us for longer, are to be the main source of carbohydrate in a good bodybuilding nutritional program, as they are the number one training fuel source, and do not cause the highs and lows, and excess fat gain that is usually associated with the simple form.
Complex carbohydrates come in two subgroups - starchy and fibrous. The starchy grouping includes: potatoes, rice, grains, spaghetti, pasta, and wholemeal bread. The starchy carbohydrate component of a our nutrition plan will include brown rice, wholegrain bread and jacket potatoes as these forms contain more fiber, which will help with fat loss and benefit health generally.
Fibrous carbohydrates, which include asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, onions, and spinach, tend to add volume without excess calories, to the diet. They are often classed as the more nutritionally dense of the carbohydrate sources, given the degree to which they contain various vitamins and minerals - organic, and inorganic substances that our body needs in smaller amounts for normal growth and maintenance.
The simple sugar carbohydrates, which include sugar in its various forms, milk, honey, chocolate and cakes, lack the natural nutrients found in complex and fibrous carbohydrates.
Given these natural nutrients help with carbohydrate metabolism, the simple carbohydrates and their lack of these vital health components will be more readily converted into, and stored as fat.
Additionally, simple sugar carbohydrates often contain various additives, which contribute to poor health and restrict muscle gains. As well they often cause a spike in insulin levels, which promotes fat gain, as the body's fat mechanism is shut down to accommodate the rapid storage of the excessive simple carbohydrate intake.
Once insulin is released into the bloodstream in excessive amounts, it takes, and stores as much energy as it can find - usually in the form of circulating carbohydrates. This process leaves us feeling tired and lethargic - another drawback to the consumption of too many simple carbohydrates.
Although simple carbohydrates are often viewed as the single greatest problem for those trying to lose weight they do, however, have healthier sub group, one lower in sugars. This group includes apples, raspberries, melons and oranges. It is preferable this type of simple carbohydrate is used in place of the more common sugar loaded variety.
An effective diet will emphasise the complex carbohydrates - both starchy and fibrous. Given their sustaining nature, which will provide longer lasting energy to compliment a well-designed training program, to help facilitate muscle building and fat loss.
Simple carbohydrates should be featured to a lesser extent, as they are likely to hasten fat gain and cause fluctuations in energy levels. They can, however, be beneficial to training progress in smaller quantities if consumed - either in fruit and sports-drink form - after training to aid with the replacement of glycogen (stored carbohydrates) used during training.
As with carbohydrates, fats in their various forms will provide energy. Unlike carbohydrates they will not supply energy in an easily useable form for weight training purposes and, at nine calories per gram, will more than likely be stored as fat if taken in excess.
From a health standpoint fats are thought to be harmful, as they have been shown to contribute to heart disease and obesity. Not all fats are created equally, however. There are good and bad fats and an effective nutrition plan will be comprised of the beneficial ones primarily.
The right type of fats in the right amount will actually benefit health, as every cell in our body is comprised of a fatty layer, which helps that cell to function properly. Fat can also be used, as an efficient energy source for lower intensity activities - most of what we do daily could be classed as lower intensity - as it is stored in larger amounts and, compared with carbohydrates, provides up to twice the energy.
It also takes up less room when stored, as, unlike carbohydrate, fat does not, for storage purposes, require three grams of water per gram of nutrient, therefore making it more readily available during activity of a lower intensity.
Fat also forms a protective barrier on all of our cells and between the skin and muscle tissue, and serves as padding around many of our organs. In these capacities fat improves cellular function, thermal regulation and helps protect our vital organs respectively. It follows then, that fat should not be totally eliminated from our diets, a mistake many beginners make at the nutrition planning stage.
The two varieties of fats and their respective features follow:
These varieties include saturated and trans fats and are primarily responsible for fats negative image. Saturated fats are found in animal products (meat, seafood, whole-milk dairy products -cheese, milk, and ice cream - poultry skin, and egg yolks) and are main contributors to heart disease, as they raise blood cholesterol levels, and promote obesity, due to the excess calories they provide, calories that are more readily stored as fat.
A very small amount of saturated fat is not necessarily a bad thing though, as it has been shown to help with testosterone production, which translates to gains in muscle mass and losses in body fat. For the beginner, a small amount of saturated fat can be a good thing, as it will help to support new gains in muscle size while providing additional energy. But it is not to be over consumed. This smaller amount will usually come from the various animal products featured in a good diet.
Trans fats are the result of hydrogenation, a process that occurs when hydrogen is added to a vegetable oil for the purposes of maintaining the shelf life of this fat. Trans fats are added to commercial products to enhance their longevity and will negatively impact training progress and health if included in our diets. A beginner is advised to avoid these fats as they are completely harmful and will in no way assist training efforts.
Good fats come in two types: monounsaturated, which is found in natural foods like nuts, avocados, olive oil, and grape-seed oil, corn oil and canola oil, and polyunsaturated, found in vegetable oils, sunflower, cottonseed and fish oils.
Of these two, polyunsaturated fat is probably the better choice as it has a wider range of positive benefits, which include an ability to significantly reduce inflammation - great for recovery following training - and improvements in brain function if taken in its omega-three form.
For those who exercise, omega-three fish oil has also been shown to greatly reduce muscle inflammation specifically while playing a role in strengthening joints. Monounsaturated fat should not be ruled out, however, as it too has some great benefits.
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Olive oil, a monounsaturated fat, is a major component of the much-vaunted Mediterranean diet. This oil is known to thin the blood and improve overall health in addition to its ability to enhance metabolic function, which also assists training efforts.
A key thing to remember with fats is they can be found in most of the animal meats you consume, as well as various packaged products. To avoid the negative effects associated with their over consumption, trim all visible fat from steak and chicken and buy water packed tuna as opposed to the oil based variety. The beginner should aim to include in their diet at least two servings of good fats per day to aid metabolic function and improve health.
- An efficient energy source.
- A good source of protective nutrients for the brain and muscular system.
- An insulation source for the body, as they form a protective barrier against climate conditions and harmful substances.
- Padding to protect vital organs.
Overall, fats in their nutritional and stored form will serve as:
Micronutrients, the vitamins and minerals that are needed in small amounts to maintain healthy physical development, are an often-underestimated nutritional component, as they are not considered a large enough nutrient source to warrant specific attention. It is not surprising then that many fall short in structuring adequate amounts of these essential nutrients into their diets due to limited knowledge of their effectiveness and the faulty nutritional planning that results.
The fact remains: the micronutrients as major health components are vital in that they help structure and regulate all reactions and processes that take place within the body. They can be included in the diet in supplemental form, but the most beneficial way to ensure optimal levels is to design a nutrition plan that includes a wide variety of healthy foods, with an emphasis on fruits and vegetables.
The reality for most of us, however, is that due to the poor nutrient content of many of our natural foods and the artificial chemicals that are added to these products, a good multivitamin/mineral supplement will be needed as an insurance policy.
Given optimal health and training progress depends on an interrelationship between many different nutritional factors, a once-a-day multi-vitamin/mineral supplement is recommended as part of the eating plan given in this article.
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A successful diet is one that does not overlook any health-contributing factors. Although micronutrients are only needed in smaller amounts compared to the larger macronutrients, they are essential in supporting the systems responsible for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism and should be included in the diet accordingly.
Vitamins are compounds formed by living organisms that serve as metabolic regulators to support health and sustain life.
The following is a list of all vitamins needed for the maintenance of good health and proper physical development along with a description of what they do and their primary sources.
Compounds formed by living organisms
This vitamin promotes healthy bone growth along with vision, reproduction, and cell division and helps to support the immune system.
Good sources include whole milk, liver, eggs, some fortified breakfast cereals, carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and most darkly colored fruit and vegetables.
B1 supports the normal function of the nervous system, muscles and heart and promotes normal growth and development.
Good best sources are whole grains and fortified cereals.
B2 supports energy production, is necessary for red blood cell and antibody production, respiration and regulating human growth and reproduction.
It is also essential for healthy skin, thyroid activity, healing of wounds, nails and hair growth and general good health.
Good sources include liver, kidney, whole grains, green leaf vegetables, milk, yeast, cheese, oily fish, eggs, enriched cereals, almonds and mushrooms.
Heavily involved in converting food into energy.
B3 also regulates circulation, the digestive and nervous systems, hormone production, and promotes healthy skin.
Good sources are beef liver and kidney, pork, turkey, chicken, veal, oily fish, beets, peanuts and strawberries.
B6 is necessary to balance the hormonal changes in women. It will also assist in the growth of new cells and the functioning of the immune system, converting food into energy, and in supporting moods, behavior and sex drive.
Good sources of B6 are similar to other B vitamins and include eggs, chicken, yeast, carrots, fish, liver, kidneys, peas and walnuts.
The primary functions of B12 are to maintain a healthy nervous system and to produce red blood cells.
Good sources include meat, dairy products and eggs but no reliable plant sources.
An important function of C is the building of collagen that gives structure to bones, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels. It also aids in bones and teeth maintenance, and in the absorption of iron.
Good sources are most fruits and vegetables. These are to be served raw if at all possible to obtain the highest levels of this vitamin.
Vitamin D is known to promote calcium and phosphorus levels to ensure optimal bone growth. It is also thought to play a role in regulating cell growth immune system function.
Exposure to direct sunlight is the best way to obtain sufficient vitamin D. Also, most dairy products contain smaller amounts, while better sources include oily fish, fortified cereals, eggs, and beef liver.
As a powerful antioxidant vitamin E acts as a barrier to poisons and diseases that can damage the body. It also helps with immune function, cellular repair, protection of the nervous system and blood vessels.
Best sources of E include nuts, green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, sprouts) eggs, wholemeal products, soy beans and vegetable oils and particularly olive oil.
Vitamin K plays an essential part in the production of coagulation proteins, which support blood clotting.
Good sources include any green, leafy vegetables, oats and oils, such as olive oil, and asparagus.
Minerals are non-organic substances, meaning they are derived from non-living sources (sand and rocks being common origins). For good health, proper metabolic functioning, the body requires an adequate supply of minerals. They are equally as important if not more so than vitamins as, unlike some vitamins, they cannot be manufactured within the body.
In addition, vitamins cannot be assimilated without the aid of minerals. Minerals are divided into major minerals and trace minerals. A list of each type and their respective functions follows:
|Sodium||Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction|| Table salt
large amounts in processed foods
small amounts in milk, breads, vegetables, and unprocessed meats
|Chloride||Needed for proper fluid balance, stomach acid||Table salt
large amounts in processed foods
small amounts in milk, meats, breads, and vegetables
|Potassium||Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction||Meats milk fresh fruits and vegetables whole grains legumes|
|Calcium||Important for healthy bones and teeth; helps muscles relax and contract; important in nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure maintenance, immune system health||Milk and milk products
canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines)
fortified tofu and fortified soy milk
greens (broccoli, mustard greens)
|Phosphorus||Important for healthy bones and teeth; found in every cell; part of the system that maintains acid-base balance||Meat
processed foods (including soda pop)
|Magnesium||Found in bones; needed for making protein, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, immune system health||Nuts and seeds
leafy, green vegetables
"hard" drinking water
|Sulfur||Found in protein molecules Occurs in foods as part of protein||meats
|Iron||Part of a molecule (hemoglobin) found in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the body; needed for energy metabolism||Organ meats
shellfish (especially clams)
dark, leafy greens
iron-enriched breads and cereals
|Zinc||Part of many enzymes; needed for making protein and genetic material; has a function in taste perception, wound healing, normal fetal development, production of sperm, normal growth and sexual maturation, immune system health||Meats
leavened whole grains
|Iodine||Found in thyroid hormone, which helps regulate growth, development, and metabolism||Seafood
foods grown in iodine-rich soil
|Copper||Part of many enzymes; needed for iron metabolism||Legumes
nuts and seeds
|Manganese||Part of many enzymes||Widespread in foods, especially plant foods|
|Fluoride||Involved in formation of bones and teeth||Drinking water (either fluoridated or naturally containing fluoride)
|Chromium||Works closely with insulin to maintain blood sugar (glucose) levels||Unrefined foods
|Molybdenum||Part of some enzymes||Legumes breads and grains leafy greens leafy, green vegetables milk liver|
Both tables from www.healthwise.org
Designing A Nutrition Program
Factors To Consider When Designing A Nutrition Program
Once you have decided on what will foods comprise your diet, based on the information given in this article, several nutritional rules are to be followed to ensure a successful, lifelong approach to healthy eating. These guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the one-day sample diet-plan that is to follow.
1. Eat Consistently Throughout The Day:
A good nutrition plan should be structured in such a way that valuable nutrients are supplied at regular intervals, to maximise muscle growth and fat loss.
Eating six evenly spaced meals per day will ensure that the muscles receive the energy and growth factors needed to facilitate ongoing gains, while stimulating the metabolism (the rate at which the body burns calories) to burn more fat.
To make your diet works it is important that all meals are consumed without fail. Failure to eat one scheduled meal could spell the difference between optimal energy levels for and recovery from intense training sessions and insufficient progress. Plan your day in advance and have your meals prepared for the following day if need be.
2. Ensure Food Supply Is Adequate:
When aiming to get in all your meals, it is important to have all the foods that comprise your diet readily available. One way to make this easier is to shop once a week with a list of all the foods you will need for that week.
Once you have all the foods listed in your diet, it should be easier to plan your eating on a day-by-day basis. Having all the right foods available will also ensure that you are less likely to cheat on your diet with the wrong foods.
3. Do Not Cheat!
A key requirement for ongoing training progress and good health is consistency in terms of what foods are eaten. This means refraining from foods that are likely to stifle progress, junk foods with very little nutritional value.
Compromising your diet with foods that will impede progress, foods that are significantly high in saturated and trans fat and sugar - cakes, sweets, pizzas, cookies and soft drinks such as Coke all fall under this category - will derail your best efforts and lead to average physical development and possible ill health.
A life without junk food is not the end of the world. The strong-minded trainee will get used to a life without these products as their body becomes accustomed to eating the kinds of foods it was originally designed for. Junk foods will interfere with the body's natural metabolic processes, and fat burning and muscle building will suffer as a result.
Eliminating obvious junk foods is not to say you cannot, on occasion, substitute a "forbidden food" for one listed in your diet. Occasional "treats" are okay if they are kept to a bare minimum.
4. Stay Hydrated:
A major aspect of any diet plan should be adequate water intake throughout the day. Water, a key component in detoxifying the body and assisting with the metabolising of the foods you eat, should never be neglected, especially during more humid conditions.
For those who train, water is valuable in the sense that it hydrates the muscles, keeping them strong and full, while keeping nutrients flowing freely throughout the body to promote growth. Water also has a major positive effect on fat burning and will encourage feelings of fullness, which will discourage the tendency many of us have to eat junk food.
|WATER INTAKE CALCULATOR|
5. Cut Carbohydrates In The Evening:
For most beginning bodybuilders, carbohydrates are to be restricted as the evening wears on, as they do tend to promote fat gain if not used as energy. Severely underweight people may circumvent fat storage if carbohydrates are eaten at this time, as they tend to need the additional calories, regardless of that calorie's source.
For most of us, a lean, muscular physique is likely to be compromised if we take a similar road. Although great for energy purposes, any form of carbohydrate will be converted to fat if eaten excessively and at the wrong time.
6. Eat At Least Two Hours Before Training:
Eating in the hours before training is one of the keys to a great workout. Without sufficient nutrients, most notably carbohydrates, energy levels for training will be less than optimal. I have personally found that eating one hour before training will provide more energy than eating two hours out, and approach used by many. Try both approaches to find what works best for you.
7. Don't Neglect Post-Workout Nutrition:
Like pre-workout nutrition, post workout feedings are similarly important. Unlike the pre-workout meal, where energy production is the intended outcome, post workout nutrition will ensure that energy is replaced and protein is supplied to the muscles when they are most receptive to its positive effects.
Many training experts go as far as to say that the post-workout meal is the second most important feeding of the day, after breakfast. After intense training the muscles are typically depleted of carbohydrates, leaving a 30-45 minute window of opportunity for the replenishment of this nutrient.
Protein is also rapidly taken into the muscles at this time. I recommend a serving of whey protein mixed with a simple sugar sports drink at this time for maximum protein and carbohydrate utilisation.
8. Never Neglect Breakfast:
Breakfast being the most important meal of the day has become somewhat of a cliché, and for good reason: it is a critical time to supply the body with the nutrients it hungers for after what is essentially an 8-10 hour fast - hence the name breakfast; break-fast.
After your morning cardio it is especially vital that breakfast is eaten; the size of this meal should be large in comparison to subsequent meals for that day because it not only replaces carbohydrate that has been use during training and depleted during sleep, but will restore protein balance to assist muscle growth. Occasionally meals will be missed - this is almost inevitable for those who live busy lives. Ensure that breakfast is not one of these.
9. Drink Tea & Coffee Without Sugar & Cream:
If you drink tea or coffee, it is best do so without all the extra calories added sugar and cream provide - a small amount of milk should do no harm. It is surprising how many people have the perfect diet but compensate for the lack of simple sugars within this plan by consuming 8-10 teaspoons of sugar during their daily coffee breaks.
Doing this can add an additional 160 calories per day of this nutrient.
10. Chew Food Thoroughly:
One often-overlooked factor when it comes to proper digestion and uptake of nutrients is eating process itself. Chewing food properly adds saliva to that food while mashing it up into an easily digestible form. If food is not thoroughly chewed, the digestion process may not take place as it should, and your body will not get the nutrients it needs as efficiently.
A Good Nutrition Program
What Comprises A Good Nutrition Program?
Based on the information and suggestions outlined in this article, a typical days eating for a hard training bodybuilder/fitness enthusiast who hits the weights at least four times a week while maintaining a cardio regimen of three sessions over the same period, could comprise the following.
This diet, if followed correctly, will supply adequate protein, carbohydrates and fats to maximise training progress while ensuring an optimal intake of vitamins and minerals, one of the keys to proper macronutrient assimilation. Remember that this one-day eating plan - to be used on training day - is an example of what could comprise a good, healthy training nutrition plan.
The protein, carbohydrate and fat content of each food will be included for each food listed to provide an indication of how much of each nutrient is needed to maximise training results.
To maintain a lean, muscular physique year round, carbohydrates can be reduced by 35 to 45 grams on non-training days. If a great physique and improved performance is a major new years goal for you, design a diet in line with the guidelines and eating plan provided, and your resolutions will come true. Happy eating.
Oatmeal: one cup (serve with water, not milk).
Protein = 6 grams, Carbohydrates = 68 grams, Fat = 5.2 grams
Carbohydrates = 19.6 grams
Seven egg whites, one yolk (Cooked in a non-stick frying pan).
Protein = 27.9, Carbohydrates = 0.10, Fat = 4.51 grams
Fish oil (cod liver oil is best): 1 teaspoon.
Fat = 4.50 grams
Protein = 33.9
Carbohydrates = 107.2
Fat = 14.21
One chicken breast (without skin, microwave or boil):
Protein = 28.98 grams, Fat = 3.03 grams
Medium serving of brown rice:
Protein = 5.03 grams, Carbohydrates = 44.77, Fat = 1.75
Two glasses of water
Protein = 34.01
Carbohydrates = 44.77
Fat = 4.78
One can of water packed tuna:
Protein = 30.48
One cup of broccoli:
Protein= 5.36, Carbohydrates = 9.11
Two glasses of water
Protein = 35.84
Carbohydrates = 9.11
Afternoon - Pre Training:
One chicken breast (without skin):
Protein = 28.98, Fat = 3.03
Medium serving of brown rice:
Protein = 5.03, Carbohydrates = 44.77, Fat = 1.75
One teaspoon of olive oil:
Fat = 4.50
Two glasses of water
Protein = 34.01
Carbohydrates = 44.77
Fat = 9.28
One Gatorade or similar and one half serving of whey protein, combined
Protein = 12
Carbohydrates = 38.49
Two medium sized jacket potatoes (baked).
Protein = 6.12, Carbohydrates = 67.24
One medium sized steak (about 200 grams of sirloin trimmed of fat):
Protein = 35, Fat = 22
One cup of broccoli:
Protein = 5.36, Carbohydrates = 9.11
Protein = 46.48
Carbohydrates = 76.35
Fat = 22
Six egg whites:
Protein = 20.2
Protein = 20.2
Total Protein: 216.26
Total Carbohydrates: 301.09
Total Fats: 56.81
- Healthwise. (2005). Minerals and their functions and sources. [Online]